At its core, economics is about choice. What do we value? How do we choose between competing priorities? How do we balance the needs of different groups? How do we balance the needs of current and future generations? The purpose of Te Tai Waiora: Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand 2022 is to inform those choices.
Under the terms of the Public Finance (Wellbeing) Amendment Act, Treasury is required to provide an independent report on the state of wellbeing in New Zealand at least every four years. Te Tai Waiora is the first of these reports.
The report draws on our Living Standards Framework and He Ara Waiora, a Māori perspective of wellbeing, to take a longer, broader, deeper, view of the drivers of wellbeing. Many of those drivers such as income levels, the adequacy of housing and the quality of air and water are quantifiable; others such as the quality of personal relationships and the quality of our institutions are less quantifiable, but still important. There is much we can learn from a Māori view of wellbeing encapsulated by concepts such as manaakitanga (our collective responsibility to care for others) and kaitaiakitanga (guardianship).
Overall, the report tells us that we are healthier, better educated, have higher incomes and are less affected by crime than previous generations. However, there are many areas where we do not perform as well as other developed nations and there are significant differences in wellbeing within Aotearoa New Zealand. One of the most striking insights is that our younger people fare less well on many measures than older people. Compared to many countries, many of our older people are doing well. Younger people fare less well on many metrics.
Younger people fare worse than older people in three priority areas: mental health, educational achievement and housing quality and affordability. The latter is particularly the case for those who do not own their homes.
These differences have consequences not just for the young, but for all New Zealanders. The youth of today are the workers of tomorrow. If our young do not get the education they need to achieve their potential, do not have good mental health and do not have access to healthy, affordable housing we will all pay the price in the longer term.
The report highlights the critical importance of lifting productivity. As noted above, income is not the sole determinant of wellbeing. A 2018 study by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) found we rated above the OECD average for life satisfaction, coming in just ahead of Australia and the United Kingdom. However, our ability to provide health, education and welfare services, fund institutions, invest in housing and preserve the natural environment all depend on the economy performing well. Compared with other developed countries in the OECD, our productivity rates are poor. Lifting our productivity is essential to improving services and protecting our environment.
The report also identifies a number of risks to future wellbeing. In addition to declining youth educational performance, increasing psychological distress and poor-quality rental housing, these risks include climate change, the preponderance of natural hazards in New Zealand such as earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and fires, and increasing geopolitical destabilisation. For the first time in recent history, there is a possibility that the next generation won’t be better off.
The high impact and unpredictable nature of many of these risks highlights the importance of being flexible, building our resilience and managing our resources in a way that provides buffers against future shocks. Our wellbeing now and in the future will be determined by the choices we make today. By increasing our understanding of the factors that contribute to wellbeing, this report gives decision makers useful information about where to invest scarce resources.
The production of this report has been a major exercise in which the Treasury has been assisted by other government agencies, the OECD, and others. I would like to thank them for their contribution to an important piece of work.
Aspects of wellbeing such as health have been covered in far greater detail in reports by other government agencies and relevant experts. Our hope is that Te Tai Waiora will add to this growing body of knowledge by providing a macro perspective that compares, contrasts and draws links across as many facets of wellbeing as possible.
Alongside the Long-term Fiscal Statement, Investment Statement and Long-term Insights Briefing, Te Tai Waiora completes the suite of stewardship reports we have published over the past two years. We invite readers to reflect on the material published in these reports and participate in ongoing public discussion about our progress as a country and our readiness to face future challenges.
Our ambition is that Te Tai Waiora sparks further mahi and kōrero to deepen our understanding, as we reach towards insight and wellbeing, as encapsulated in the following whakataukī:
Mā te whakaatu, ka mōhio, mā te mohio ka mārama,
mā te mārama ka matau, mā te matau ka ora.
With discussion comes knowledge,
with knowledge comes light and understanding,
with light and understanding comes wisdom,
with wisdom comes wellness.
Statement of responsibility
I, the Secretary to the Treasury, confirm that the indicators have been selected, and the report prepared, by the Treasury using its best professional judgements.
Ngā mihi nui
Te Tumu Whakarae mō Te Tai Ōhanga
Secretary to the Treasury
He Wāhinga Kōrero nā te Tumu Whakarae
Kei tōna iho, ko te tino kaupapa o te ōhanga ko te kōwhiri. He aha e whai uara ana ki a tātou? Me pēhea tātou e kōwhiri i waenganui i ngā whakaarotau taupatupatu? Me pēhea tātou e whakataurite ai i ngā hiahia o ngā rōpū rerekē? Me pēhea tātou e whakataurite ai i ngā hiahia o ngā whakatipuranga onāianei me ngā whakatipuranga e heke mai nei? Ko te take o Te Tai Waiora: Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand 2022 kia whaimōhio ai aua kōwhiringa.
I raro i ngā tikanga o te Public Finance (Wellbeing) Amendment Act, e herea ana Te Tai Ōhanga ki te whakarato i te pūrongo motuhake mō te āhua o te toiora i Aotearoa i roto i ngā tau e whā, iti iho rānei. Ko Te Tai Waiora te tuatahi o ēnei pūrongo.
Ka aro atu tā mātou pūrongo ki te Anga Paerewa Oranga me He Ara Waiora, he tirohanga Māori ki te toiora, kia waihanga i te tirohanga roa rawa, whānui rawa, hōhonu rawa hoki ki ngā kōkiritanga o te toiora. Ka taea ētahi o aua kōkiritanga te tatau, pērā i ngā taumata moni whiwhi, te tika o te wharenoho me te kounga o te hau takiwā me te wai; ahakoa he uaua ake te tatau i ētahi atu, pērā i te kounga o ngā whanaungatanga whaiaro me te kounga o ō tātou whakanōhanga, he mea hira tonu. He nui ngā mea hei akoranga mā mātou i tā te Māori titiro ki te toiora e whakatinanahia ai e ngā ariā pērā i te manaakitanga (tō tātou kawenga ngātahi ki te tiaki i ētahi atu) me te kaitiakitanga (te tuaritanga).
Hui katoa, e whakaatu ana te pūrongo kua pai ake tō tātou hauora me te akoranga, he nui ake ngā moni whiwhi, ā, he iti iho te pānga o te taihara i tō ētahi atu whakatipuranga. Heoi anō, tērā ētahi takiwā kāore mātou i te tutuki pai pērā i ētahi atu whenua whanake, ā, tērā ētahi tino rerekētanga i roto i te toiora i Aotearoa. Ko tētahi o ngā māramatanga hira kāore e pērā rawa te pai o ā mātou rangatahi i runga i ngā inenga huhua i tō te hunga pakeke ake. Ina whakatauritea ana ki ngā whenua maha, he pai te tutukitanga o ā mātou kaumātua. E ai ki ngā inenga huhua, kāore e pērā rawa te pai a ngā rangatahi.
E toru ngā takiwā whakaarotau e kino iho ai te tutukitanga o ngā rangatahi i tō te hunga pakeke ake: hauora hinengaro, tutukitanga akoranga me te kounga me te tareka ā-utu o te wharenoho. He tino tika te mea whakamutunga mō te hunga kāore i te whiwhi ki ō rātou ake whare.
He tukunga iho e puta mai ana i ēnei rerekētanga mō te rangatahi, waihoki mō ngā tāngata katoa nō Aotearoa. Ko te rangatahi onāianei ngā kaimahi o āpōpō. Ki te kore ā mātou taitamariki e whiwhi ai ki te akoranga e hiahiatia ana e rātou hei whakatutuki i te pitomata, e whai i te hauora hinengaro pai, ā, e āhei ai ki te wharenoho tareka ā-utu, mā tātou katoa e utu i te mutunga o te rā.
Ka miramira tēnei pūrongo i te hira waiwai o te whakahiki i te māpua. Pērā i te kōrero i runga ake, ehara te moni whiwhi i te whakataunga kau o te toiora. I kitea i roto i tētahi rangahau a te Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) i te tau 2018, i runga paku ake i te toharite OECD tā mātou pāpātanga mō te mākona ki te oranga, i paku hipa i Ahitereiria me Piritānia. Heoi anō, tā mātou āheinga ki te whakarato i te hauora, te mātauranga me ngā ratonga tokoora, te tuku pūtea ki ngā whakanōhanga, te whakangao ki te wharenoho me te tāroki i te taiao māori e hāngai ana ki te pai haere o te ōhanga. Ina whakatauritea ai ki ētahi atu whenua whanake i roto i te OECD, he ngoikore ā mātou pāpātanga māpua. He mea waiwai te whakahiki i tā mātou māpua kia whakapai ake i ngā ratonga me te whakahaumaru i tō tātou taiao.
Ka tautuhi hoki te pūrongo i ētahi tūraru ki te toiora anamata. I tua atu i te hekenga o te tutukitanga akoranga o te rangatahi, te pikinga o te ngaukino ā-hinengaro me te wharenoho rēti kounga kino, kei roto i ēnei tūraru ko te panoni āhuarangi, te nui o ngā mōrearea māori i Aotearoa pērā i ngā rū whenua, ngā puia, ngā waipuke me ngā ahi, me te whakakorenga o te tūwhena whenua tōrangapū e piki haere ana. Kua eke pea ki te wā tuatahi i te hītori nōnakuanei kāore e pai ake te whakatipuranga e whai ake nei i te whakatipuranga onāianei.
Ka miramira te pānga nui me te āhuatanga o te huhua o ēnei mōrea e kore e taea te matapae, i te hiranga o te tāwariwari, te waihanga i tō tātou manawaroa me te whakahaere i ō tātou rauemi kia whakarato ai i ngā tauārai ki ngā whētuki anamata. Ka whakatauhia tō tātou toiora onāianei, ā muri atu hoki mā ā mātou kōwhiringa i ēnei rā. Mā te whakanui i tō mātou māramatanga ki ngā āhuatanga e tāpae ana ki te toiora, ka hoatu tēnei pūrongo i ngā mōhiohio whai take ki te hunga whakatau me whakangao i ngā rauemi ongeonge ki hea.
He mahi nui te whakaputanga o tēnei pūrongo, ā, kua āwhinatia Te Tai Ōhanga e ētahi atu tari kāwanatanga, te OECD, me ētahi atu hoki. Me mihi ka tika ki a rātou mō ā rātou tāpaetanga ki tētahi mahi hira.
Kua kapia rawatia e ētahi atu tari kāwanatanga me ngā mātanga hāngai ētahi āhuatanga o te toiora pērā i te hauora i roto i ētahi atu pūrongo. Ko tō mātou wawata ka tāpiri Te Tai Waiora ki tēnei tinana mōhiotanga e tipu ana mā te whakarato i te tirohanga whārahi e whakataurite ana, e whakatauaro ana me te whiriwhiri mai i ngā hononga i roto i ngā āhuatanga katoa o te toiora e āhei ana.
I te taha o te Tauākī Moni Karioi, te Tauākī Haumitanga, me te Whakamōhiotanga Māramatanga Wā Roa, ka whakaoti Te Tai Waiora i te huinga o ngā pūrongo tuari kua tāngia e mātou i roto i ngā tau e rua kua hipa. Ka tono mātou i ngā kaipānui ki te whakaaro ki ngā kōrero kua tāngia i roto i ēnei pūrongo me te whai wāhi ki te matapaki tūmatanui e haere tonu ana mō tā tātou ahu whakamua hei whenua me tā tātou rite ki te urupare ki ngā wero e heke mai nei.
Ko tō mātou awhero mā Te Tai Waiora e tīmata ai ētahi atu mahi, kōrero hoki kia whakahōhonu i tō mātou mōhiotanga, ina whātoro atu mātou ki te māramatanga me te toiora, pērā i te whakatinanatanga i roto i te whakataukī e whai ake nei:
Mā te whakaatu, ka mōhio, mā te mohio ka mārama,
mā te mārama ka matau, mā te matau ka ora.
With discussion comes knowledge,
with knowledge comes light and understanding,
with light and understanding comes wisdom,
with wisdom comes wellness.
Tauākī o te kawenga
Ka whakaae ahau, te Tumu Whakarae mō Te Tai Ōhanga, kua kōwhiria ngā paetohu, ā, kua whakaritea te pūrongo, e Te Tai Ōhanga e whakamahi ana i āna whakataunga ngaio pai rawa.
Ngā mihi nui
Te Tumu Whakarae mō Te Tai Ōhanga
Secretary to the Treasury
In this report, Te Tai Ōhanga | The Treasury assesses how wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand has changed over time, how wellbeing is distributed, how the wellbeing of Māori is evolving, and whether wellbeing is sustainable into the future.
Wellbeing refers to what it means for our lives to go well. It encompasses aspects of material prosperity such as income and GDP. And it also encompasses many other important things such as our health, our relationships with people and the environment, and the satisfaction we take in the experience of life. We at Te Tai Ōhanga | The Treasury consider wellbeing analysis “economics done well”, as it creates a more complete picture of societal progress.
Improvements in wellbeing over time
Life in Aotearoa New Zealand has improved in many ways over the past twenty years. Over time we in Aotearoa New Zealand have developed our country’s infrastructure, built better institutions, and transformed the economy. This progress has delivered many benefits. For example, we are now healthier and live longer, are safer on our roads and workplaces, and our incomes are far higher than in the past.
Compared to other OECD countries, Aotearoa New Zealand is a good place to live in many ways. We enjoy very clean air, strong relationships, high life satisfaction and have a relatively high level of social cohesion and trust in one another. Those of us currently of working age have very high levels of skills, partly reflecting the fact that many highly-qualified people born in other countries have joined our society over time.
Compared to other OECD countries, Aotearoa New Zealand is a generally good place to live for most older people. Compared to people of the same age in other countries, those of us over 65 have high levels of social support, experience more positive emotions and are less likely to be in poverty. Rates of home ownership are highest among the oldest age groups, most of whom have benefited from substantial growth in house prices over time.
Areas of low or deteriorating wellbeing
However, Aotearoa New Zealand performs less well on wellbeing for children and young people. Child poverty rates are declining but there are still many children and young people who have experienced poverty for much of their lives, including many disabled children and children in sole parent families. The evidence suggests that these children are likely to do less well over the course of their lives.
The evidence also suggests that our schools do less well to counteract disadvantage than schools in other countries. Children in our schools are bullied more often than children in other countries. An increasing number of children are not attending school, and each year growing numbers of children are reaching age 15 without even basic levels of literacy and numeracy. This is the first of three important findings we have identified in this report that merit closer attention.
The second major area for improvement is that teenagers and young adults have rapidly increasing levels of psychological distress and our teen suicide rate continues to be among the worst in the OECD.
Ensuring our housing markets support wellbeing across the course of our lives is the third major area for improvement we identify. Changes in our housing markets have made it more difficult for young people to progress into home ownership. Renting is becoming increasingly common well into people’s 30s and 40s, and our rental housing is among the least affordable in the OECD, particularly for people with the lowest incomes. Housing in Aotearoa New Zealand is often of low quality, and this applies particularly to rental accommodation, which is more likely to be crowded or mouldy. Changes in our housing markets are an example of how the gap between the wellbeing of young and old is widening over time in many respects.
Many young people (and adults) experience one type of low wellbeing, such as poor mental health, or low skills, or unaffordable housing. But a single type of low wellbeing is often balanced by high wellbeing in other areas of life. Those of us least satisfied with our lives tend to face low wellbeing in multiple areas at once. About 5% to 10% of the population are experiencing low wellbeing in at least four areas. Disabled people, sole parents, Māori and Pacific Peoples are overrepresented in groups of people that experience low wellbeing in multiple areas.
Some experiences of low wellbeing are short-lived, but others are persistent or recurrent. Much income poverty and material hardship is recurrent, particularly for people without qualifications and people on benefits. On average, someone on benefit today can expect to spend 12 more years on benefit between now and when they turn 65.
Many of those with low wellbeing are parents. Children raised by parents with low wellbeing do less well at school and tertiary levels than children of more advantaged parents. Patterns of educational success help explain why children of rich parents are more likely to become rich themselves and the children of poor parents are more likely to become poor. Our levels of income mobility between generations appear to be higher than in countries like the USA, but lower than in countries like Denmark.
Wellbeing of Māori and Pacific peoples
The lower wellbeing of young people is particularly important for Māori and Pacific Peoples, two groups with lower average wellbeing and younger age profiles. In future Māori and Pacific Peoples will make up a larger share of the total population. The wellbeing of these groups is important in its own right and will increasingly affect aggregate measures of wellbeing across the country.
Those of us who are Māori experience high levels of cultural belonging, collective identity, and communal sharing and giving, and Māori wellbeing is improving in many ways. However, Māori experience lower wellbeing on average than other groups of people across many areas, including income, material hardship, health, and housing. Most of these gaps between Māori and non-Māori are closing slowly at best. Māori have had especially rapid increase in rates of psychological distress, high levels of discrimination, and low trust in government institutions.
Those of us who are Pacific peoples have strong social connections and a strong sense of belonging to New Zealand. However, Pacific peoples’ wellbeing is lower than the national average across many other areas, with poor housing and low incomes for Pacific peoples being two standout issues.
The future of wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand
Taken together, these findings point to a growing intergenerational gap in wellbeing. Today’s children and young people will face major challenges to achieving the same high levels of wellbeing that older adults enjoy today. The falling educational achievement and worsening psychological distress we observe among young people today pose risks to their wellbeing as adults. There are also external challenges to future wellbeing, especially climate change.
In many respects wellbeing has held up in recent years despite COVID-19. However, it is possible that we are yet to see the full impact of COVID-19 on society. Recent deterioration in educational attendance,mental health, and other measures could affect wellbeing in future.
One way to assess whether wellbeing can be sustained is to look at the evolution of the four aspects of our national wealth. Our physical capital and human capability are high and have been increasing over time, something that future New Zealanders will benefit from. Future New Zealanders will also benefit from the high social cohesion we have built, although there are threats to maintaining this such as the rise of misinformation. However, while New Zealand has high natural capital, aspects of the natural environment are deteriorating, and this poses risks to future wellbeing. As our economy has developed over time, we have accepted some deterioration of our natural environment in exchange for the benefits of increasing wealth of other forms. But biodiversity loss and other types of environmental deterioration cannot continue indefinitely without posing major risks to future wellbeing.
Perhaps the most significant risk to the sustainability of our wellbeing is climate change. Severe weather events are becoming more frequent as mean temperatures rise, and the sea level is rising. Scientists predict this will continue. Aotearoa New Zealand is part of global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, efforts which will require an economic transformation. Sustaining wellbeing will depend upon our society’s ability to adapt to a lower-carbon economy and a warmer global climate. Through a combination of productivity growth, technological change and societal choices, the material foundation of our wellbeing needs to change if it is to be sustainable in the future.
Aotearoa New Zealand is also exposed to many high-impact, inevitable, but rare risks like earthquakes and tsunami that significantly harm wellbeing when they occur. Managing risks, particularly the potential for many major, unexpected ones, requires a focus on building adaptability and resilience across society. This means investing in the quality and flexibility of our institutions, which determine our response to risks, and managing our wealth to provide buffers to absorb shocks.
Next steps after Te Tai Waiora
Te Tai Waiora will provide a lasting evidence base for the Treasury and other organisations to understand the trends, distribution, drivers and sustainability of wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand. The insights contained in Te Tai Waiora aim to help inform the policy and investment advice that we offer to governments over time.
In preparing Te Tai Waiora, we identified important areas for further research. Aotearoa New Zealand needs better data, particularly about the natural environment. More work is needed to better understand the causes of the concerning trends identified in Te Tai Waiora. And further work will help us to understand what policy interventions could help alleviate low wellbeing.
Our hope at Te Tai Ohanga | The Treasury is that future iterations of this report will build upon the foundation laid in our first attempt, to develop ever-richer insight into wellbeing.
I roto i tēnei pūrongo, ka aromatawai Te Tai Ōhanga he pēhea te panoni o te toiora i Aotearoa i te hipanga o te wā, he pēhea te tuari o te toiora, he pēhea te kuneroa o te toiora o ngāi Māori, ā, mēnā he mea toitū te toiora ā muri atu.
Ko te tikanga o te toiora ka pēhea mēnā e pai ana te haere o tō tātou ao. Ka kōpani i ngā āhuatanga katoa o te tōnuitanga ōkiko pērā i te moni whiwhi me te GDP. Waihoki, ka kōpani hoki i ētahi atu mea matua pērā i tō tātou hauora, ō tātou whanaungatanga ki ētahi atu tāngata me te taiao, me te ngata e whiwhi ai tātou i te wheako ki te ao. Ki a mātou o Te Tai Ōhanga he “ōhanga kua mahia tikahia” te tātaritanga toiora, nā te mea ka waihangatia ai te tino whakaahua o te ahu whakamua ā-pāpori.
Ko ngā whakawhanaketanga o te toiora i te hipanga o te wā
Kua pai ake te ao i Aotearoa i ngā āhuatanga huhua i roto i ngā rua tekau tau kua hipa. I te hipanga o te wā kua whakawhanake tātou, i Aotearoa nei, i te tūāhanga o tō tātou whenua, kua waihanga i ngā whakanōhanga pai ake, ā, kua huri i te ōhanga. He maha ngā painga kua tukuna e tēnei ahu whakamua. Hei tauira, ināianei he pai ake tō tātou hauora me te roa ake o ngā tau e ora ana, he haumaru ake i runga i ngā huarahi me ngā wāhi mahi, ā, he nui rawa ake ō tātou moni whiwhi i ō ngā wā i mua.
Ina whakatairitea ai ki ētahi atu whenua OECD, he huhua ngā āhuatanga pai o Aotearoa hei wāhi noho. Kei a tātou te hau takiwā mā, ngā whanaungatanga kaha, he nui te ngata ki tō tātou ao, ā, he āhua teitei te taumata whakakotahitanga o te pāpori me te pono o tētahi ki tētahi. He teitei rawa ngā taumata pūkenga o te hunga kei te pakeketanga tika ki te mahi, ko tētahi take he tokomaha ngā tāngata me ngā tohu teitei i whānau mai i whenua kē kua tūhono mai ki tō tātou pāpori i te hipanga o te wā.
Ina whakatairitea ai ki ētahi atu whenua OECD, he wāhi pai a Aotearoa hei noho mō te nuinga o ngā kaumātua. Ina whakatairitea ana ki te hunga he ōrite te pakeke i whenua kē, he teitei ngā taumata tautoko ā-pāpori mō mātou kua hipa i te 65 tau, he pai ake ngā aurongo, ā, he iti iho te tūponotanga e noho ana rātou i roto i te rawakore. Ko ngā pāpātanga o te whiwhinga kāinga he teitei rawa mō ngā rōpū o te hunga tino pakeke, te nuinga i whai painga i te tino tipu o ngā utu kāinga i te hipanga o te wā.
Ko ngā takiwā o te toiora hahaka, whakaero rānei
Heoi anō, kāore e pērā rawa te pai o Aotearoa e pā ana ki te toiora mō ngā tamariki me ngā rangatahi. E heke ana ngā pāpātanga rawakore tamariki engari he tokomaha tonu ngā tamariki me ngā rangatahi kua wheako i te rawakore mō tētahi wāhanga nui o ō rātou ao, tae atu ki ngā tamariki hauā huhua me ngā tamariki i roto i ngā whānau matua tūtahi. E whakaatu ana te taunakitanga kāore e pērā rawa te tutukitanga pai o ēnei tamariki i te wā o ō rātou ao.
E ai hoki ki te taunakitanga he iti iho te pai o ō tātou kura ki te whakaheke i te taumahatanga i tō ngā kura kei whenua kē. He nui ake te tūponotanga o ā tātou tamariki i ō tātou kura ki te whakaweti, i tō ngā tamariki i whenua kē. E piki ana te tokomaha o ngā tamariki kāore i te toro atu ki te kura, ā, i ia tau e piki ana te tokomaha o ngā tamariki e eke ana ki te tau 15 me te kore e eke ki ngā taumata waiwai o te reo matatini me te pāngarau. Koinei te tuatahi o ngā kaupapa hira e toru kua tautuhia e mātou i roto i tēnei pūrongo e tika ana kia āta tirotirohia.
Ko te wāhi tuarua kia whakapai ake he tere te piki o ngā taumata ngaukino ā-hinengaro o ngā rangatahi me ngā pakeke pūhouhou waihoki kō tō tātou pāpātanga whakamomori rangatahi tētahi o ngā mea kino rawa o te OECD.
Ko te wāhi matua tuatoru kia whakapai ake ka tautohua e mātou ko te whakatūturu mā ngā mākete wharenoho e tautoko te toiora mō te katoa o ō tātou ao. Nā ngā panoni i roto i ō tātou mākete wharenoho i uaua ai mā te hunga taiohi te ahu whakamua ki te whiwhinga kāinga. Ka piki te whānuitanga o te rēti o ngā pakeke kua eke ki ngā tekau tau 30 me te 40, waihoki ko te wharenoho rēti i konei he tino ngoikore te tareka ā-utu puta noa i te OECD, otirā, mō te hunga me ngā moni whiwhi iti rawa. He iti te kounga o ngā wharenoho i Aotearoa, ā, e tino hāngai ana tēnei ki te wāhi noho rēti, he nui ake te tūponotanga ki te apiapi, te puruhekaheka rānei. Ka whakatauiratia e ngā panoni o ō tātou mākete wharenoho te āputa i waenganui i te toiora o te rangatahi me te kaumātua, ā, e āhua whakawhānui haere ana.
He tokomaha te hunga taiohi (me ngā pakeke) e pāngia ana e tētahi tūmomo toiora hahaka, pērā i te hauora hinengaro kino, ngā pūkenga hahaka, te wharenoho tē taea te utu rānei. Engari, he nui ngā wā ka whakatauritea tētahi momo toiora hahaka kotahi e te toiora teitei ki ētahi atu takiwā o te ao o te tangata. Ko te hunga he iti rawa te mākona i roto i ō tātou ao, e pāngia ana e te toiora hahaka i roto i ngā takiwā huhua i te wā kotahi. Ko tōna 5 ōrau ki te 10 ōrau o te taupori e pāngia ana e te toiora hahaka i roto i ngā takiwā e whā, neke atu rānei. He whakaahuahanga nui nō te hunga hauā, ngā mātua tūtahi, ngāi Māori me ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa hei rōpū tāngata e pāngia ana ki te toiora hahaka i roto i ngā takiwā huhua.
He poto te wā o ētahi wheako toiora hahaka, engari kō ētahi he pūmau, he auau rānei. He nui te rawakore moni whiwhi me te taumahatanga rawa e auau ana, otirā mō te hunga kāore i whiwhi ki ngā tohu me te hunga e whiwhi ana ki ngā penihana. He pēnei te toharite, ina whiwhi ana te tangata ki te penihana i te rā nei, e matapaetia ana ka noho ia ki te penihana mō ngā tau 12 anō mai i tēnei wā me tāna huringa ki te tau 65.
He tokomaha te hunga me te toiora hahaka he mātua. Kāore e tutuki pai ana ki te kura me ngā taumata mātātoru ngā tamariki e whakatipuhia ana e ngā mātua me te toiora hahaka pērā i te tutuki pai a ngā tamariki me ngā mātua whai huanga. Mā ngā tauira o te angitu mātauranga e whakamārama ai he aha te take he nui ake te tūponotanga e whairawa ai ngā tamariki o ngā mātua whairawa, ā, e rawakore ai ngā tamariki o ngā mātua rawakore. He nui ake ngā taumata o te panukutanga moni whiwhi i waenga i ngā whakatipuranga i konei, i ō ngā motu pērā i Amerika, engari he iti iho i ō ngā motu pērā i Tenemāka.
Te toiora o ngāi Māori me ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa
He mea tino nui te toiora hahaka o te hunga taiohi ki ngāi Māori me ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, ngā rōpū e rua me te toiora hahaka me ngā hangapori tau iti iho toharite. Ā muri atu, he nui ake te wāhi o ngāi Māori me ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i roto i te taupori whānui. He mea nui te toiora o ēnei rōpū, ā, nāwai rā ka whakaaweawe ēnei rōpū i ngā inenga hiatonga o te toiora puta noa i te motu.
Mēnā he Māori te tangata he teitei ngā taumata noho huānga ā-ahurea, te tuakiri kiritōpū, me te tuari me te koha ā-hapori, ā, he maha ngā ara e piki ana te pai o te toiora Māori. Heoi anō, he toiora hahaka ā-toharite e wheako ana ngāi Māori i tō ētahi atu rōpū tāngata, i roto i ngā takiwā huhua, tae atu ki te moni whiwhi, te taumahatanga rawa, te hauora, me te wharenoho. He pōturi te whakaitinga o te nuinga o ēnei āputa i waenganui i ngāi Māori me tauiwi. Kua pā ki ngāi Māori he pikinga tere rawa ki ngā pāpātanga o te auhi ā-hinengaro, ngā taumata teitei o te whakahāwea, me te pono iti rawa ki ngā whakanōhanga kāwanatanga.
He kaha ngā tūhononga pāpori me te noho huānga ki Aotearoa o ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Heoi anō, he iti iho te toiora o ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i te toharite ā-motu ki ngā takiwā maha, ā, ko ngā wharenoho kino me te moni whiwhi iti he take nui rawa mā ngā tāngata nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa.
Te anamata o te toiora i Aotearoa
Hui katoa, e tohu ana ēnei kitenga i te āputa i waenga i tētahi whakatipuranga, i tētahi whakatipuranga e pā ana ki te toiora. Kei mua i te aroaro o ngā tamariki me ngā rangatahi onāianei ngā wero nui ki te whakatutuki i ngā taumata teitei o te toiora pērā i ō ngā pakeke kaumātaua o ēnei rā. He tūraru nō te hekenga o te whakatutukitanga ā-mātauranga me te kino haere o te ngaukino ā-hinengaro e kitea ana e mātou i roto i te hunga taiohi ki ō rātou toiora hei pakeke. Tērā hoki ētahi wero rāwaho ki te toiora anamata, otirā te panoni āhuarangi.
I roto i ngā āhuatanga huhua kua pūmau tonu te toiora ahakoa te KOWHEORI-19 i ngā tau tata kua hipa. Heoi anō, tērā pea kāore anō mātou kia kite i te tino pānga o te KOWHEORI-19 ki te pāpori. Tērā pea mā te whakaero i roto i te taenga atu ki te kura, te hauora hinengaro, me ētahi atu inenga e whakaaweawe te toiora ā muri atu.
Ko tētahi ara kia aromatawai mēnā ka toitū te toiora ko te tirohanga ki te kuneroa o ngā āhuatanga e whā o tō tātou whairawa ā-motu. He teitei tō tātou rawa ahumoni ōkiko me te āheinga tangata, ā, i te piki haere i te hipanga o te wā, tētahi mea e whai painga ai ngā whakatipuranga tāngata nō Aotearoa e heke mai nei. Waihoki ka whai painga ngā whakatipuranga tāngata nō Aotearoa e heke mai nei i te teitei o te whakakotahitanga o te pāpori kua hangaia e tātou, ahakoa tērā ētahi whakamōrea ki te whakapūmau i tēnei, pērā i te putanga mai o te kōrero horihori. Heoi anō, ahakoa he teitei te rawa ahumoni o Aotearoa e whakaero ana ētahi āhuatanga o te taiao māori, ā, ka noho hei tūraru ki te toiora anamata. Ina whakawhanake ana tō tātou ōhanga, kua whakaae tātou ki tētahi whakaerotanga o tō tātou taiao māori hei whakawhitinga mō ngā painga o te whakapiki whairawa āhua kē. Engari kāore e taea te haere tonutanga o te ngaro kanorau koiora ki te kore e puta hei tūraru nunui ki te toiora anamata.
Tērā pea ko te tūraru nui ki te toitūtanga o tō tātou toiora ko te panoni āhuarangi. Kua putuputu ngā takunetanga huarere ina piki ai ngā paemahana toharite me te piki tonu o te taumata o te moana. E matapae ana ngā kaimātai pūtaiao ka haere tonu tēnei. Kua whai wāhi a Aotearoa ki te whakapaunga kaha ā-ao ki te whakaiti i ngā putanga haurehu kati mahana, ā, e hiahiatia ana e ēnei mahi te huringa ōhanga. Ka hāngai te toitūtanga toiora ki te āheinga o tō tātou pāpori ki te urutau ki te ōhanga waro iti iho me te āhuarangi mahana ake ā-ao. Nā te whakatōpūtanga o te whanaketanga māpua, te panoni hangarau me ngā kōwhiringā ā-pāpori, me panoni te tūāpapa ōkiko o tō tātou toiora kia toitū tonu ā muri atu.
Waihoki ka pāngia a Aotearoa e ngā tūraru huhua, pānga nunui, onge hoki, ā, kāore e kore ka pā mai pērā i ngā rū whenua me ngā parawhenua e tino whakakino ana i te toiora ina puta mai ai. Ki te whakahaere tūraru, otirā te pitomata mō ngā mea nui, kāore i te matapaetia, me arotahi ki te waihanga i te urutaunga me te manawaroa puta noa i te pāpori. Ko tōna tikanga me whakangao ki te kounga me te tāwariwari o ō tātou whakanōhanga, e whakarite ai i tā tātou urupare ki ngā tūraru, me te whakahaere i tā tātou whairawa hei whakarato i ngā tauārai hei miti whētuki.
Ngā mahi hei muri i Te Tai Waiora
Ka whakarato Te Tai Waiora i te tūāpapa taunakitanga pūmau kia āhei Te Tai Ōhanga me ētahi atu rōpū whakahaere te mārama ki ngā ia, te tuari, ngā kōkiritanga me te toitūtanga o te toiora i Aotearoa. Ka whai ngā māramatanga i roto i Te Tai Waiora kia āwhina ki te tautoko i ngā tohutohu kaupapahere me te whakangao e tāpae ana mātou ki ngā kāwanatanga i te hipanga o te wā.
I a mātou e whakarite ana i Te Tai Waiora, i tautuhi mātou i ngā takiwā matua hei rangahautanga anō. E hiahia ana a Aotearoa ki te raraunga pai ake, otirā mō te taiao māori. Me mahi i ētahi atu mahi kia mārama pai ake ki ngā pūtake o ngā ia whakararu i tautuhia i roto i Te Tai Waiora. Waihoki, mā te mahi anō ka āwhinatia mātou kia mārama ko ēhea ngā wawao kaupapahere e hiki ai i te toiora hahaka.
Ko tō mātou wawata i Te Tai Ōhanga ka waihanga ngā putanga anō o tēnei pūrongo ā muri atu i runga i te tūāpapa i whakatakotohia i roto i tā mātou whakamātau tuatahi, kia whakawhanake i te māramatanga hōhonu ake ki te toiora.