Treasury paper

Wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand: A Population Segmentation Analysis


This paper has benefited from input from many colleagues in the Treasury, including Tod Wright, Tim Hughes, Patrick Nolan and Diana Cook. Thanks to Keith McLeod, Simon Anastasiadis and Penny Mok for their comments on a draft of the paper. We adapted code written by our former colleagues, Keith McLeod, Steven Johnston and Simon Brown to analyse the GSS data. Any remaining errors are the sole responsibility of the authors.   


The views, opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this report are strictly those of the author. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the New Zealand Treasury, Stats NZ or the New Zealand Government. The New Zealand Treasury and the New Zealand Government take no responsibility for any errors or omissions in, or for the correctness of, the information contained in this Background Paper.

Access to the data used in this study was provided by Stats NZ in accordance with security and confidentiality provisions of the Data and Statistics Act 2022. The results presented in this study are the work of the author, not Stats NZ or individual data suppliers. These results are not official statistics. They have been created for research purposes from the Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI) which is carefully managed by Stats NZ. For more information about the IDI please visit

The results are based in part on tax data supplied by Inland Revenue to Stats NZ under the Tax Administration Act 1994 for statistical purposes. Any discussion of data limitations or weaknesses is in the context of using the IDI for statistical purposes, and is not related to the data’s ability to support Inland Revenue’s core operational requirements.