Statement of Responsibility

On the basis of the economic and fiscal information available to it, the Treasury has used its best professional judgement in supplying the Minister of Finance with this Economic and Fiscal Update. The Update incorporates the fiscal and economic implications both of government decisions and other circumstances as at 29 April 2016 that were communicated to me by the Minister of Finance in accordance with the requirements of the Public Finance Act 1989 and of other economic and fiscal information available to the Treasury as at 29 April 2016. This Update does not incorporate any decisions, circumstances or statements that the Minister of Finance has determined, in accordance with section 26V of the Public Finance Act 1989, should not be incorporated in this Update.

Gabriel Makhlouf
Secretary to the Treasury

16 May 2016

To enable the Treasury to prepare this Economic and Fiscal Update I have ensured the Secretary to the Treasury has been advised, in accordance with the requirements of the Public Finance Act 1989, of all government decisions and other circumstances as at 29 April 2016 of which I was aware and that had material economic or fiscal implications.

I accept responsibility for the integrity of the disclosures contained in the Update and responsibility for the consistency and completeness of the Update information with the requirements of Part 2 (Fiscal responsibility) of the Public Finance Act 1989.

Hon Bill English
Minister of Finance

16 May 2016

Executive Summary

  • Economic growth is forecast to strengthen from 2.6% in the year ending June 2016 (the 2015/16 fiscal year) to 3.2% in the year ending June 2018 driven by strong population growth, sustained increases in services exports, particularly tourism, and the stimulatory effects of low interest rates.
  • The operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL) is expected to increase from a position of broad balance in the current year to a surplus of $6.7 billion (2.2% of gross domestic product (GDP)) in the 2019/20 fiscal year (Figure 1).
  • As a share of GDP, net core Crown debt is forecast to peak at 25.6% ($66.3 billion) in the 2016/17 fiscal year and to decline to 20.8% ($62.3 billion) in the 2019/20 year (Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Operating balance and net debt
Figure 1 - Operating balance and net debt .
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

In New Zealand, the pace of growth picked up in the second half of 2015 and was stronger than anticipated in the Half Year Update. This strength is reflected in upward revisions to the Treasury's forecasts of nominal GDP, tax revenue and OBEGAL in the current fiscal year. These gains are sustained across the forecast period by ongoing strength in net migration inflows, construction activity and spending by visitors to New Zealand.

Growth among New Zealand's major trading partners eased in 2015, particularly in China and other Asian economies. Global monetary policy remains extremely accommodating and a modest pick-up in trading partner growth is expected in 2017 and subsequent years.

Risks of more pronounced weakness in the global economy remain high, with China's transition towards greater consumption-driven growth and the impacts of reduced monetary policy stimulus in the United States (US) potential sources of further volatility. Other risks, including the United Kingdom's (UK's) European Union membership referendum, are adding to uncertainty.

The New Zealand economy is continuing to adjust to the effects of lower commodity prices, particularly for dairy exports. Commodity export values are forecast to weaken over the year ahead leading to a wider current account deficit. International dairy prices are expected to recover gradually over 2017 and 2018, contributing to a narrowing of the current account deficit.

Compared with the Half Year Update, net migration inflows are significantly higher over the forecast period, which raises the Treasury's estimate of the economy's productive capacity (or potential output), and flows through to higher real GDP. However, a larger proportion of growth is expected to occur in the relatively low productivity sectors of construction and hospitality. Consequently, growth in real GDP per capita is slightly slower than forecast in the Half Year Update.

Consumers Price Index (CPI) inflation is expected to rise to 2.0%, the middle of the Reserve Bank's 1% to 3% target range, in late 2017. This is around one year later than in the Half Year Update, reflecting the effects of recent falls in fuel prices and the impact of lower inflation expectations on wage- and price-setting behaviour.

Compared to the Half Year Update, the lower inflation forecast reduces growth in nominal GDP and tax revenue in the 2017/18 and 2018/19 fiscal years. Nevertheless, the strength of recent outturns underpins nominal GDP and tax revenue forecasts that remain higher than in the Half Year Update (Figure 2).

Figure 2 - Nominal GDP (annual)
Figure 2 - Nominal GDP (annual) .
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

The number of people in employment increased by 120,000 in the past two years, broadly matching growth in the labour force. However, the proportion of the working-age population in the labour force has been variable and the unemployment rate has fluctuated between 6.0% and 5.4% over the past two years.

Employment is forecast to grow around 2.0% per annum over the next four years and, as net migration inflows ease, to exceed growth in the labour force. The unemployment rate is expected to remain within its recent range (6.0% to 5.4%) until mid-2017, before steadily declining to 4.6% at the end of the forecast period.

Budget 2016 incorporates an increase in the Government's 2016/17 operating and capital allowances and lower future allowances. The net effect of the Government's revenue and expenditure decisions (the fiscal impulse) is to provide modest support for economic growth over the 2015/16 and 2016/17 fiscal years. Thereafter, the combination of stable operating allowances and increasing tax revenues generates a mildly contractionary fiscal impulse.

Although OBEGAL is expected to record small surpluses this year and in 2016/17, increases in capital spending lead to larger core Crown cash deficits (residual cash) and higher net debt. Residual cash returns to surplus in 2018/19 and net debt declines. Overall, the outlook for residual cash flows has improved since the Half Year Update, and net debt is forecast to be $8.8 billion lower in 2019/20.

Net worth attributable to the Crown is expected to increase over the forecast period, driven by OBEGAL surpluses.

The economic and fiscal forecasts are based on a number of assumptions and judgements concerning economic developments. The Risks and Scenarios chapter presents two scenarios to show how the economy might evolve under some alternative judgements. The weaker world scenario is assumed to reduce visitor arrivals and to lower the terms of trade, which results in weaker growth. OBEGAL remains close to balance until the 2017/18 year before increasing, and net debt is around four percentage points higher in 2019/20 than in the main forecast. In the sustained domestic momentum scenario, stronger GDP growth and higher inflation flow through to increases in nominal GDP and tax revenue. OBEGAL increases to almost 3.0% of GDP in 2019/20 and net debt is well below 20.0% of GDP.

Table 1 - Summary of the Treasury's main economic and fiscal forecasts
June years (%) 2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Economic            
Real GDP growth1 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.5
Unemployment rate2 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.6
CPI inflation3 0.4 0.1 1.5 2.0 1.9 2.1
Current account balance4 -3.5 -3.5 -4.6 -4.1 -4.3 -4.8
Fiscal (% of GDP)            
Total Crown OBEGAL5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.7 2.2
Net core Crown debt6 25.1 24.9 25.6 25.0 23.1 20.8
Net worth attributable to the Crown 35.8 33.4 33.4 33.5 34.5 36.4

Notes:

  1. Real production GDP, annual average percentage change.
  2. Percent of labour force, June quarter, seasonally adjusted.
  3. Annual percentage change, June quarter.
  4. Percent of GDP.
  5. Total Crown operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL).
  6. Net core Crown debt excluding the New Zealand Superannuation (NZS) Fund and advances.

Sources: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Finalisation Dates for the Update

Economic forecasts - 13 April

Tax revenue forecasts - 19 April

Fiscal forecasts - 29 April

Specific fiscal risks - 29 April

Text finalised - 20 May

Economic Outlook

Overview

  • Growth in the New Zealand economy picked up in the second half of 2015 and was higher than anticipated in the Half Year Update on the back of strong net migration inflows, residential construction and elevated tourist spending. On the other hand, trading partner growth eased in 2015 in line with the Half Year Update and the outlook is weaker than previously forecast. China's growth slowed as the economy transitions from investment to more consumption as the key driver of growth, weighing on growth in other Asian trading partners and Australia.
  • Annual average GDP growth in New Zealand is expected to accelerate from 2.6% in June 2016 to 2.9% in June 2017, as net migration inflows, low interest rates and tourist spending drive growth in consumption, residential investment and services exports. However, previous falls in commodity prices are expected to reduce goods exports.
  • GDP growth is forecast to increase to 3.2% in the 2018 June year. A pick-up in growth in New Zealand's key trading partners and slower growth in global dairy supply are expected to lead to a lift in commodity export prices. The consequent recovery in farm incomes is expected to support business investment and a rebound in exports growth, and previous strong population growth boosts construction.
  • Some spare capacity in the economy is expected to remain in the near term as higher labour supply lifts the economy's productive capacity, resulting in low non-tradables inflation, which is reinforced by weak inflation expectations. However, labour supply growth is expected to slow from 2017 and productivity growth is expected to remain subdued, leading to a reduction in spare capacity and a rise in inflationary pressure.
  • Nominal GDP growth is expected to remain low in the near term as a result of the relatively subdued terms of trade and low inflation, although it is held up by solid real GDP growth. Nominal GDP growth is expected to increase in later years, as the terms of trade and inflation recover and real GDP growth remains solid.
  • There are key risks to the New Zealand economy. Global risks remain skewed to the downside, including a sharp slowdown in China's growth, persistently low global inflation, a possible British exit from the European Union and geopolitical risks. Domestic risks are more balanced, relating to inflation dynamics, the current migration cycle and house price growth. These risks are discussed in the Risks and Scenarios chapter.
Table 1.1 - Economic forecasts (June years)1
Note: In this Update, economic forecasts are presented on a June year basis
(rather than March years as in previous Updates) for consistency with the fiscal forecasts.
(Annual average % change,
June years)
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Private consumption 2.7 3.0 3.3 2.6 2.5 2.3
Public consumption 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.4 1.0 1.1
Total consumption 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.3 2.2 2.0
Residential investment 8.5 5.4 6.5 7.4 5.5 -0.8
Market investment 5.2 2.2 6.1 6.1 7.7 5.0
Non-market investment 27.0 3.0 8.4 -1.9 -8.3 0.5
Total investment 7.8 3.1 5.8 5.4 5.6 2.8
Stock change2 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4
Gross national expenditure 3.4 2.7 3.7 3.3 3.3 2.5
Exports 5.7 3.7 0.4 4.5 2.7 2.3
Imports 6.6 0.5 3.8 4.6 4.3 2.4
GDP (expenditure measure) 3.3 3.5 2.6 3.3 2.8 2.5
GDP (production measure) 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.5
Real GDP per capita 1.5 0.5 0.9 1.9 1.9 1.6
Nominal GDP (expenditure measure) 2.8 3.5 3.6 5.6 5.1 4.1
GDP deflator -0.5 0.0 1.0 2.2 2.2 1.5
Potential GDP 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.4
Output gap (% deviation, June quarter)3 -1.0 -1.0 -0.6 -0.2 0.0 0.0
Employment 3.2 1.4 2.2 1.9 2.0 1.5
Unemployment rate4 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.6
Participation rate5 69.3 68.5 68.4 68.6 68.9 68.9
Nominal wages6 2.8 1.7 1.4 1.9 2.3 2.9
CPI inflation7 0.4 0.1 1.5 2.0 1.9 2.1
Terms of trade8 -5.0 -4.7 0.4 3.7 2.3 -0.6
House prices9 11.1 8.9 7.7 2.3 2.0 2.0
Current account balance            
  $billions -8.4 -8.7 -12.0 -11.2 -12.2 -14.4
  % of GDP -3.5 -3.5 -4.6 -4.1 -4.3 -4.8
Household saving ratio (% of HHDI)10 -0.7 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.1
TWI11 76.2 72.5 70.5 70.2 70.3 69.5
90-day bank bill rate11 3.5 2.2 2.2 2.6 3.7 4.2
10-year bond rate11 3.6 3.1 3.2 3.9 4.2 4.4

Data in the table are in June years unless otherwise specified, and March year tables are provided on page 138.

Longer time series for these variables are provided on page 137.

Notes:

  1. Forecasts finalised 13 April 2016.
  2. Contribution to GDP growth.
  3. Estimated as the percentage difference between actual real GDP and potential real GDP.
  4. Percent of the labour force, June quarter, seasonally adjusted.
  5. Percent of the working-age population, June quarter, seasonally adjusted.
  6. Quarterly Employment Survey, average ordinary-time hourly earnings, annual percentage change.
  7. Annual percentage change.
  8. System of National Accounts (SNA) and goods basis.
  9. Quotable Value New Zealand (QVNZ) House Price Index, annual percentage change.
  10. % of household disposable income (HHDI), March years.
  11. Average for the June quarter.

Key economic forecast assumptions

  • Trading partner growth is assumed to ease marginally in 2016, as growth is expected to slow in China, most emerging Asian economies, the US and euro area. It then increases gradually over the remainder of the forecast period.
  • Dairy prices are assumed to recover at a modest rate, returning towards the long-term levels forecast by the OECD-FAO of US$3,400/metric tonne (mt) by the middle of 2018 from $2203/mt in early May 2016.
  • West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil prices are assumed to rise from US$33 per barrel in the March 2016 quarter to US$63 in the June 2020 quarter.
  • Net permanent and long-term migration inflows are assumed to rise from 68,000 in the year ended March 2016 to a peak of 70,700 in the year ended June 2016 and to return to the long-run assumption of 12,000 per year in the year ended June 2019.
  • Annual growth in the working-age population is assumed to average 1.5% per June year over the forecast period.
  • Economy-wide multifactor productivity growth is assumed to average 0.5% per year between the years ending June 2016 and June 2020.
  • Economy-wide labour productivity growth is assumed to average 1.0% per year between the years ending June 2016 and June 2020.
  • Annual average growth in potential output is assumed to fall from 3.0% in June 2016 to 2.4% in June 2020 as population growth slows.
  • Non-tradables inflation is assumed to respond to capacity pressures as previously thought.
  • Non-tradables inflation is also assumed to respond to inflation expectations. However, inflation expectations are assumed to be more influenced by recent low inflation than previously considered, leading to a later return of inflation to 2%.
  • The assumed neutral level of the 90-day interest rate is 4.5%.
  • The non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) is assumed to be around 4.5% by the end of the forecast period.

Policy impact assumptions

  • Increases in the tobacco excise tax in the March quarter each year are estimated to contribute 0.2 percentage points to annual CPI inflation for each of the next four years.
  • The reduction in Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) vehicle levies in the September 2016 quarter is estimated to reduce annual CPI inflation by 0.2 percentage points.

Recent Developments

Economic growth picked up on the back of solid domestic demand…

The pace of economic expansion accelerated in the second half of 2015. Real GDP grew 0.9% in both the September and December quarters, faster than the Half Year Update forecasts of 0.6% (Figure 1.1), on the back of strong growth in the service industries, reflecting high net migration and tourist inflows. Residential construction growth picked up from earlier in the year, as housing supply in Auckland responded to high demand. However, weaker global dairy prices started to flow through to lower dairy export receipts, although elevated tourism spending provided a positive offset for export growth. Per capita real production GDP growth fell to 0.6% in the calendar year 2015 from 2.2% in 2014, as aggregate growth was driven largely by population growth.

Figure 1.1 - Real GDP growth
Figure 1.1 - Real GDP growth.
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

…as population growth increased…

Net inward migration reached a record of 68,000 in the year to March 2016, exceeding its Half Year Update forecast peak of 62,700. Increased arrivals drove net migration gains, and are likely to give a larger near-term boost to demand than supply compared with lower departures as the main driver. Working-age migrants require accommodation and other necessities following arrival, but may take some time to enter the labour market. Private consumption expanded 1.6% in the second half of 2015, up from 0.9% in the first half, reflecting strong population growth and low interest rates.

…strong housing demand persisted…

Strong housing demand continued to support residential investment. While house sales fell in the December quarter 2015 as the market adjusted to regulatory changes (Figure 1.2), the impact of these changes on demand softened in early 2016 as the fundamentals underpinning strong demand - population growth and low mortgage rates - reasserted themselves, leading to a rebound in house sales (see the box on page 13 for details on construction and other recent developments in the housing market). Residential investment expanded 5.0% in 2015, exceeding the pace of GDP growth, and was driven increasingly by Auckland, where annual growth in the median house price reached 25% in the middle of 2015 before slowing in the December quarter.

Figure 1.2 - House sales and mortgage rates
Figure 1.2 - House sales and mortgage rates.
Source: Real Estate Institute of New Zealand, Reserve Bank

…and interest rates fell

Further monetary easing added support to domestic demand. The Reserve Bank reduced the Official Cash Rate (OCR) by 125 basis points (bps) between June 2015 and March 2016, leading to a large fall in short-term interest rates, although the fall in floating mortgage interest rates was less pronounced owing to increased overseas funding costs. The Reserve Bank stated that its recent rate reduction in March was in response to a weaker global outlook and recent falls in inflation expectations, which are likely to negatively affect wage- and price-setting behaviour throughout the economy.

However, subdued demand from New Zealand's key trading partners…

Trading partner growth eased in 2015, chiefly as growth slowed in China and other emerging economies, while growth in developed economies remained moderate. China's growth slowed as the economy transitions from an investment-led model to greater emphasis on consumption as a driver of growth, and as authorities balance reform and short-term stimulus. Slower growth in China had flow-on effects to other Asian trading partners, and concerns over its growth outlook contributed to high financial market volatility in early 2016, which was characterised by increased demand for safe-haven assets and volatile equity markets.

The slowdown in China affected Australia through a further fall in its terms of trade. However, the Australian economy is shifting from mining investment towards other investment, consumption and exports as drivers of growth, supported by low interest rates and currency depreciation. The recovery in the US and UK slowed as low oil prices reduced investment in oil exploration and strength in their exchange rates constrained their manufacturing sectors, although both currencies fell recently. Growth remained subdued in Japan and the euro area as these economies continue to experience weak demand.

Commodity prices fell owing to weaker global demand and increased supply. Crude oil prices declined around 30% in the March 2016 quarter from a year ago to US$33/barrel, their lowest level since 2008, after a fall of around 50% in the year to March 2015. Reflecting slow global growth and falls in commodity prices, global inflation remains weak and monetary policy remains highly accommodative across developed economies.

…continued to weigh on dairy prices...

Global dairy prices fell by more than 50% over 2014 and 2015 as they came under pressure from increased supply and weak demand (Figure 1.3). Dairy prices rose briefly in late 2015 on expectations that El Niño might curb New Zealand milk production, but these price gains were reversed in early 2016 as it became apparent that the impact of El Niño was not as great as expected and global supply growth remained strong. Fonterra lowered its farmgate milk price forecast for the 2015/16 season to $3.90/kg of milk solids, lower than the price of $4.40/kg in the 2014/15 season.

Figure 1.3 - Dairy prices
Figure 1.3 - Dairy prices.
Source: GlobalDairyTrade, the Treasury

The goods terms of trade fell 4.9% in the December quarter 2015 from December 2014, to be down 13.6% from their peak in December 2013, as lower export prices, led by dairy, more than offset the drop in import prices, driven by crude oil.

The El Niño weather pattern has had a smaller impact on agricultural conditions to date than projected in the Half Year Update, but the anticipation of it influenced farm production decisions. Meat export volumes grew strongly over the second half of 2015 as farmers sent livestock to slaughter in anticipation of dry conditions. Meanwhile, lower dairy prices were likely the main factor behind the fall in dairy production in the 2015/16 season. Falls in export prices and a drop in dairy production reduced export receipts, contributing to a widening in the annual goods trade deficit in the December quarter. Despite a wider goods deficit, the annual current account deficit narrowed to 3.1% of GDP in the December quarter from 3.3% in the September quarter, driven by a rise in the services surplus and a fall in income earned by foreign investors in New Zealand.

...but the impact on the current account was offset by tourist spending

Elevated tourist arrivals supported services exports. Overseas visitor arrivals rose 9.6% in 2015, driven by an increase in Chinese and Australian visitors, as travellers perceive higher personal risks in some other parts of the world, China incrementally loosened travel restrictions and depreciation in the New Zealand dollar reduced the cost of visiting New Zealand. Reflecting high tourist arrivals, travel services exports (chiefly tourism) rose 26% in the year, leading to a 17% increase in the value of services exports.

Strong growth in labour supply leads to higher spare economic capacity…

While labour demand in the economy was solid, it was matched by increases in labour supply, owing to elevated net migration inflows. The working-age population grew 2.3% in 2015, up from 2.1% in 2014, with three-quarters of the growth in 2015 driven by net migration inflows, lifting the economy's productive capacity. Consequently, spare capacity in the economy is estimated to have remained significant in the second half of 2015, despite solid domestic demand.

…weighing on inflation and nominal GDP growth

Annual inflation remained low at 0.4% in the March quarter 2016.[1] Annual tradables inflation remained weak at -1.2% owing to falling petrol prices. Non-tradables inflation was low at 1.6%, reflecting significant spare capacity in the economy. Low inflation and falls in the terms of trade led nominal GDP growth to slow to 3.3% in 2015 from 5.1% in 2014.

However, stronger-than-expected real (or volume) GDP growth led nominal growth to exceed its Half Year Update forecasts. Consistent with stronger-than-expected nominal GDP growth, tax revenue in 2015/16 has so far exceeded forecast, driven by source deductions and goods and services tax (GST), which reflect faster growth in total labour income and consumption than expected. See the Fiscal Outlook chapter for recent developments in tax revenue.

Notes

  • [1]The March quarter CPI was released after the finalisation of the economic forecasts. See the box on page 14 for details on data developments after forecast finalisation and their implications for the economic outlook.

Building and infrastructure construction

This box examines recent developments in construction which contributes to investment growth. According to Statistics New Zealand's Building Activity Survey, the total volume of building work grew 3.5% in 2015, slowing from 17.4% in 2014. The Canterbury rebuild was the main driver of construction growth in 2014, but Auckland took over in 2015.

Residential construction rose 3.9% in 2015 following growth of around 20% in 2013 and 2014, with housing supply responding to large increases in house prices. High population growth and low interest rates led housing demand to outpace supply in parts of the country, particularly Auckland, although Christchurch showed soft house price growth as supply caught up with demand (Figure 1.4). High demand was initially confined to Auckland, but spread to other North Island regions over 2015, and gradually spilled over to parts of the South Island as well. Auckland housing demand adjusted to the Reserve Bank's higher loan-to-value lending restrictions for the region and changes to the Government's property taxation rules in late 2015, but strong demand resumed in early 2016 on the back of continued high population growth and low interest rates.

Figure 1.4 - House price growth by region
Figure 1.4 - House price growth by region   .
Source: Quotable Value

 

The Canterbury residential rebuild continued to contribute to investment following its peak in late 2014. Investment from the residential rebuild (in 2011 dollars) is estimated to be around $15 billion, slightly lower than the Half Year Update estimate of $16 billion, reflecting a refinement of assumptions about the extent of land insurance claims that will lead to repairs. However, cash settlements of claims are expected to support consumption and still contribute to GDP. The commercial, and social and infrastructure rebuilds are expected to support non-residential construction. The estimated commercial rebuild is $9 billion (lower than $10 billion previously as assumptions on land settlements are refined). The social and infrastructure rebuild estimate remains at $11 billion. The $1.5 billion reduction since the Half Year Update[2] gives an aggregate investment estimate for the rebuild of $35 billion when rounded to the nearest $5 billion. Around $28 billion of the rebuild is expected to be finished by June 2020, although this estimate is highly uncertain. From now on, the difficulty of distinguishing rebuild construction from business-as-usual activity is expected to increase.

Non-residential construction surged 14.3% in 2014, as farm construction expanded in response to a rise in commodity prices, but grew only 3.0% in 2015 as dairy prices declined. However, strong growth in commercial buildings, including hotels, provided a positive offset in 2015. Large infrastructure projects contributed to non-residential construction, although non-market investment growth is expected to slow over the medium term, as the dollar value of projects starting in the next couple of years is low. A full regional breakdown of construction is not readily available, but Treasury's engagement with businesses suggests that non-residential construction growth in regions more reliant on dairy (Waikato and rural Canterbury) is likely to be weaker than the national average, while growth in regions more exposed to migration and tourism (Auckland and Queenstown) is likely to be above average. Infrastructure projects, including the Auckland Rail Links, the Waitemata Harbour Crossing and the Wellington Transmission Gully, are supporting activity in some regions and boosting infrastructure capacity in areas experiencing high population growth.

Developments after forecast finalisation

This box discusses data released following finalisation of the economic forecasts on 13 April 2016 - the March quarter CPI and labour market data released on 18 April and 4 May respectively. Additionally, the latest medium-term International Monetary Fund (IMF) and April Consensus Forecasts of global economic growth were released shortly after finalisation. Overall, these data do not materially change the economic outlook presented in this document.

Consumers Price Index

The CPI data point to slightly stronger inflation in 2016 than forecast, with annual inflation of 0.4% in the March quarter compared to the BudgetUpdate forecast of a 0.2% lift in prices. Non-tradables inflation was as expected, with all of the variance in tradables inflation. The risk of higher inflation than expected may be partially mitigated by recent exchange rate appreciation. Overall the outturn does not materially change our longer term inflation forecasts, particularly as domestic inflation (non-tradables inflation) was as expected.

The Reserve Bank held the OCR unchanged at 2.25% at its 28 April OCR review but maintained an easing bias, reflecting the weak outlook for inflation. These forecasts incorporate one further 25 bps reduction in the OCR in 2016.

Labour market

Employment and earnings growth in the March quarter were higher than expected in the Budget Update. However, higher employment growth was more than offset by growth in the labour force, resulting in a higher unemployment rate of 5.7% (compared to 5.5% forecast).

The Budget Update forecasts show that unemployment will lift to around 5.7% in the second half of 2016 before trending lower. The March quarter outturn suggests this peak may be a little higher. Overall, however, given that labour market data are volatile, the labour market forecasts presented in this document remain appropriate.

International economic forecasts

April Consensus Forecasts and the IMF April World Economic Outlook (WEO) forecasts (both of which include updated long-term forecasts) were received after the trading partner growth (TPG) forecasts were finalised. At the level of aggregate TPG, the Budget Update forecasts are the same as or slightly lower than the Consensus and WEO forecasts in 2016-18, but slightly higher in 2019 and 2020 (see Table 1.2 on page 16). The downside risks to the international outlook are considered further in the Risks and Scenarios chapter, while Scenario One of the chapter explores the potential impact of weaker global growth.

Notes

  • [2]Numbers may not add due to rounding.

Near-term Outlook to June 2017

Domestic demand is expected to drive higher GDP growth in 2016…

Real GDP growth is forecast to accelerate to 2.8% in the calendar year 2016 from 2.5% in 2015, faster than the Half Year Update forecast of 2.3%. On a quarterly basis, GDP growth is forecast to moderate to 0.6% per quarter in the first half of 2016 from 0.9% in the second half of 2015. Annual average GDP growth is expected to rise to 2.9% by the middle of 2017 from 2.6% in June 2016, chiefly reflecting solid domestic demand.

Domestic demand is expected to be the main driver of growth in the near term, although robust demand for tourism services exports is also expected to continue. Elevated net migration inflows are expected to boost aggregate household spending, contributing to growth in private consumption and residential investment. Public consumption growth is expected to remain moderate in the near term, with the fiscal impulse exerting a mildly stimulatory effect on growth (see the Structural balance indicators box on page 38 for further details). However, weak global demand and increased supply are expected to restrain dairy prices, leading to a reduction in farm incomes and negatively affecting business investment.

...as net migration inflows lift aggregate consumption…

The annual net migration inflow is expected to peak at 70,700 in the middle of 2016, higher than its Half Year Update forecast peak of 62,700 (Figure 1.5). This, combined with a slower fall from the peak, results in approximately 50,000 more people than in the previous forecast, with most of this expected to occur over the next two years, adding impetus to demand. However, annual average per capita GDP growth is expected to remain low at 0.5% in June 2016 and increase modestly to 0.9% in June 2017.

Figure 1.5 - Net migration
Figure 1.5 - Net migration.
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Private consumption growth is expected to remain solid. In addition to elevated net migration inflows, other factors supporting household spending are low interest rates, solid real wage growth and the wealth effects from house price growth, all of which more than offset the impact of lower farm incomes. Low interest rates are expected to provide strong support to consumption, given that household debt is expected to remain high at around 90% of GDP in the next two years.

…and residential investment growth picks up…

House price growth in the near term is expected to remain high and to be driven increasingly by regions outside Auckland, which reflects a broadening of housing demand to the rest of New Zealand, supported by strong net migration and low interest rates. Scenario Two on page 61 in the Risks and Scenarios chapter shows how sustained strong house price growth could partly contribute to stronger-than-forecast domestic demand by boosting private consumption and residential investment.

Construction in Auckland is responding to elevated house prices, and is expected to support residential investment growth of 6.5% per year over the next two years. The pick-up in house prices across other regions is also expected to support residential investment growth. The Canterbury residential rebuild is projected to remain high in level terms over the next two years, but is not expected to contribute to growth in residential investment. The box on page 13 discusses recent developments in housing demand and construction.

…while growth in tourist arrivals boosts real services exports

Tourist spending is also expected to support demand. Real services exports are forecast to grow around 6.9% per year over the next two years. Chinese visitor arrivals are projected to rise owing to China's loosening of travel restrictions and continuing income growth across emerging Asian economies. Visitor arrivals from New Zealand's traditional source markets of Australia, the US and Europe are also expected to increase as New Zealand is perceived as a relatively safe place to visit. In addition to the boost to services exports, tourism is expected to support construction activity over the next couple of years through increased pressure on infrastructure and accommodation capacity.

However, weak global demand continues to weigh on commodity prices...

While the outlook for domestic demand is positive, TPG is expected to ease slightly in 2016. The Chinese economy is expected to continue to transition from investment-led growth towards a more consumption-based model, leading to slower growth. The slowdown in China's investment growth, which is commodity-intensive, is expected to weigh on growth in commodity-exporting economies including Australia, but growth in Australia is expected to be supported by a gradual rebalancing in investment from mining to other sectors, facilitated in turn by low interest rates.

The recovery in the US and UK is expected to continue, but at a slower pace than in the past year, owing to weak demand for their exports and slower private consumption growth. Growth in the euro area and Japan is expected to remain low, owing to weak investment growth and low Chinese demand. All told, TPG is expected to ease slightly from 3.5% in 2015 to 3.4% in 2016, before increasing gradually from 2017 (Table 1.2).

Table 1.2 -Trading partner growth (annual % change)
Calendar years 2016
weights
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
China 24% 6.9 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0
Australia 22% 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
United States 13% 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4
Newly Industrialised Economies* 11% 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.0 3.1
ASEAN-4^ 8% 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.9 4.9 4.9
Euro area 7% 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Japan 7% 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.0
United Kingdom 4% 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Canada 2% 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2
India 2% 7.3 7.5 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.0
Trading partner growth (TPG) 100% 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.8
TPG - Consensus (April 2016)   3.5 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7
TPG - IMF WEO (April 2016)   3.5 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7
TPG - The Treasury (2015 Half Year Update)   3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8

*South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong

^ Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines

Sources: IMF, Consensus Forecasts, the Treasury

…reduces global inflation…

Slower growth in the world economy reinforces a weaker outlook for global inflation. Consequently, monetary policy settings across most economies are expected to remain highly stimulatory. Central banks in the euro area and Japan are expected to continue with large-scale asset purchases for some time, while the US Federal Reserve signalled that policy rate rises over 2016 may occur slower than previously indicated. Nevertheless, further tightening in US monetary policy is expected as US domestic conditions improve, putting upward pressure on global interest rates over the forecast period.

Risks to global growth and inflation remain skewed to the downside. The risks with the largest potential impact on the New Zealand economy include a sharp slowing in China's growth, which would impact on other trading partners, and a further moderation of growth in advanced economies leading to a more prolonged period of low inflation. Other risks, including the possibility of Britain exiting the European Union, may lead to high volatility in global markets. The realisation of any of these risks would weigh on demand and inflation in New Zealand. Scenario One on page 59 in the Risks and Scenarios chapter shows how weaker-than-forecast TPG could impact on the New Zealand economy.

...and restrains the terms of trade…

Subdued global demand and excess supply are expected to continue to weigh on world prices for many of New Zealand's key commodity exports, including dairy, lamb and forestry. The goods terms of trade are expected to remain around their current levels, following large falls over the past two years (Figure 1.6). Lower import prices, partly reflecting a fall in oil prices, provide some positive offset. Dairy prices are expected to remain around their current levels over the first half of 2016 before recovering as excess global supply is absorbed by the market.

Figure 1.6 - Goods terms of trade (SNA basis)
Figure 1.6 - Goods terms of trade (SNA basis).
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

The annual current account deficit is expected to widen. The goods deficit is expected to rise as falls in export prices and reduced dairy production continue to flow through to lower export receipts. While the services surplus is expected to remain high, its pace of increase is expected to moderate. The annual current account deficit is expected to rise to 4.6% in the June quarter 2017 owing to a wider goods deficit, but this represents a lower peak than in the Half Year Update, reflecting a sustained high level of tourist spending.

...which presents a drag on business investment growth in the first half of 2016

Low export prices have reduced farm incomes, which negatively impacts on investment in the agricultural sector. In addition, previous New Zealand dollar depreciation has flowed through to price rises for imported capital goods, weighing on business investment. Annual average growth in market investment is forecast to be soft at 2.2% in June 2016, driven by a contraction in market investment in the December quarter 2015. According to the Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion, investment intentions for the first half of 2016 remained soft, firms' own activity expectations declined and business confidence fell, reinforcing a relatively slow recovery in business investment in the first half of 2016.

Growth in labour supply keeps spare capacity in the economy high...

When considered in isolation, the soft investment outlook in the near term will reduce growth in the productive capacity of the economy, but is offset by the boost from net migration. Growth in the working-age population is expected to be historically high at around 2.5% in 2016 and is expected to outpace employment growth. As a result of increased labour supply, spare capacity in the economy is expected to remain significant over the remainder of 2016 despite solid demand. The unemployment rate was forecast to peak at 5.7% during 2016, but recent data suggest the peak may be somewhat higher.[3]

Wage growth is expected to fall below 2.0% in 2016, but real wage growth is projected to be solid owing to low inflation. However, real wage growth is expected to slow in 2017 as inflation rises and the high level of real labour costs leads firms to substitute more capital for labour in their input to production, which supports a recovery in investment growth.

…which reduces price pressures and nominal GDP growth…

Annual inflation is expected to remain low over 2016 (Figure 1.7), contrary to the Half Year Update forecast for a pick-up, chiefly reflecting a fall in oil prices in the March quarter 2016. In addition, low inflation has reduced households' and firms' expectations of future inflation, which is expected to weigh on non-tradables inflation. The box on page 19 discusses how lower inflation expectations affect inflation. The appreciation of the New Zealand dollar in early 2016 will put downward pressure on tradables inflation, partly reversing the effect of past depreciation. Inflation is expected to rise from 2017, as falls in fuel prices drop out of the annual calculation, oil prices steadily recover and the tobacco excise tax is increased.

Figure 1.7 - Consumer price inflation
Figure 1.7 - Consumer price inflation   .
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Nominal GDP growth is expected to remain low in the near term, reflecting low inflation, falls in the terms of trade and a soft outlook for business investment and goods exports. However, continued strong growth in real private consumption and residential investment is expected to lead to stronger nominal GDP growth in 2016 than previously forecast.

...and monetary policy is expected to stay accommodative

Monetary conditions are assumed to become more accommodative over the next two years as the OCR is reduced and the New Zealand dollar falls following an appreciation in early 2016. One further 25-bps OCR reduction is assumed to occur in 2016, and short-term interest rates are expected to remain low over 2016 and 2017. The exchange rate is assumed to fall over the remainder of 2016, driven by a depreciation against the US dollar as US monetary tightening continues.

Forecast judgements regarding inflation expectations

Annual CPI inflation has averaged less than 1% over the past four years and is not forecast to return to 2% until the 2017 December quarter.[4] Three of the key channels that influence inflation are:

  1. the degree of spare productive capacity in the economy, represented by the output gap
  2. production costs, consisting of the cost of labour (wages), capital (the interest rate) and other inputs (eg, oil/petrol) which may be affected by the exchange rate, and
  3. expectations of future inflation which contribute to price- and wage-setting behaviour.

Consistent with recent Reserve Bank analysis, which discusses the impact of low inflation on inflation expectations, the Treasury has changed its modelling assumption regarding the formation of inflation expectations.[5] This change, which has been incorporated in these forecasts, means thatrecent low inflation outturns are assumed to have a larger negative impact on inflation expectations, leading to a later return of inflation to 2% than otherwise.

Following persistent low inflation, the Reserve Bank's survey of two-year-ahead inflation expectations fell to 1.6% in the 2016 March quarter, their lowest level in more than 20 years (Figure 1.8). The change in assumption means that for a given output gap, low inflation outcomes lead to a lower-than-otherwise forecast of inflation expectations and therefore lower non-tradables inflation, slowing the rate at which inflation returns to 2% (the midpoint of the Reserve Bank's 1% to 3% target band). This dynamic is evident in Figure 1.9 with the recent narrowing of the output gap not being accompanied by as much pick-up in non-tradables inflation as in the past.

The change in assumption lowers nominal GDP by approximately $2.0 billion over the forecast period as a whole (0.2%) and tax revenue by approximately $0.7 billion. However, there remains considerable uncertainty around how inflation expectations impact inflation outturns. The Treasury will continue to monitor and review its assumption regarding inflation expectations.

Figure 1.8 - Two-year-ahead inflation expectations and actual inflation
Figure 1.8 - Two-year-ahead inflation expectations and actual inflation.
Source: Reserve Bank, Statistics New Zealand
Figure 1.9 - Output gap and non-tradables inflation
Figure 1.9 - Output gap and non-tradables inflation.
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Notes

  • [3]March quarter labour market figures were released after the forecasts were finalised and the December quarter 2015 unemployment rate was revised to 5.4% from 5.3%, and the March quarter figure was 5.7%. See the box on page 14 on implications for the economic outlook of data released after forecast finalisation.
  • [4]See box in the 2015 Budget Update “Why has inflation been surprisingly low?” for more detail on recent drivers of low inflation outturns.
  • [5]See Reserve Bank Bulletin Vol. 79, No. 4 “Inflation expectations and the conduct of monetary policy in New Zealand” and Analytical note AN2016/01 “Inflation expectations curve: a tool for monitoring inflation expectations”.

Medium-term Outlook from June 2017 to 2020

Growth increases in 2018 before declining later in the forecast…

June year annual average real GDP growth is forecast to lift from 2.9% in 2017 to 3.2% in 2018, and then decline to 2.8% in 2019 and 2.5% in 2020. Key drivers of growth are expected to steadily return to their long-run average levels. Growth in goods exports is forecast to pick up in the 2018 June year owing to a recovery in soft commodity prices as trading partner growth gains traction and dairy supply growth slows. Rising terms of trade are expected to support business investment growth, while previous high population growth boosts residential investment growth. However, the decline in net migration from previously elevated levels and softening real income growth in 2017 are expected to lead to slower private consumption growth, while real public consumption growth moderates as inflation rises and growth in government spending slows. The slowdown in GDP growth over the last two years of the forecast reflects lower net migration inflows, a steady rise in interest rates and the levelling-off in the terms of trade after a period of increases.

Annual growth in the labour force is expected to slow from 1.9% in June 2017 to 1.1% by June 2020. A relatively solid outlook for GDP growth is expected to support employment growth, which encourages people to seek work, and the participation rate is projected to rise from 68.4% in the June quarter 2017 to 68.9% in June 2019.

The economy's potential growth rate is expected to be high over the first half of the forecast period (Figure 1.10), owing to historically high population growth boosted by net migration inflows. Potential growth is expected to fall in annual average terms from 2.9% in June 2017 to 2.4% by the end of the forecast period, as net migration inflows taper off. Potential growth has been revised up across the forecast period from the Half Year Update (Figure 1.10), owing to a higher projection for population growth.

Figure 1.10 - Potential growth
Figure 1.10 - Potential growth.
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

…as export prices recover as a result of adjustment in global supply and demand…

The goods terms of trade are expected to recover following a forecast pick-up in late 2016, driven by commodity export prices rising from a low level. An anticipated slowdown in global supply growth is a key driver for some commodities, including dairy, lamb and forestry, alongside broad-based higher demand as world growth regains momentum. Accommodative monetary conditions are expected to support the recovery in advanced economies, while higher commodity export prices lift growth in emerging economies.

Dairy prices are projected to increase steadily towards their assumed long-run average level of around US$3,400/mt by June 2018. On the other hand, rising import prices over the forecast period, as crude oil prices rise from a low level, will be a partial offset to the strengthening export prices. Oil prices are assumed to trend incrementally higher to reach US$63/barrel by June 2020. Owing to a continued rise in import prices, the terms of trade are expected to ease again after 2018 following a recovery.

…leading to a pick-up in commodity exports…

Goods exports are expected to rebound strongly in 2017 (Figure 1.11). Agricultural production is expected to recover in the 2016/17 season, as rising dairy prices stabilise milk production and meat production normalises. The assumed depreciation of the New Zealand dollar over 2016 is also expected to support exports from the middle of 2017. Rising exports growth is expected to be sustained into 2018 before moderating. Services exports are projected to grow steadily over the forecast period, on the back of travel services exports (chiefly tourism), supported by solid income growth in the source countries of tourist arrivals to New Zealand.

Figure 1.11 - Real goods exports
Figure 1.11 - Real goods exports.
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

…and monetary policy is expected to remain accommodative…

After remaining at low levels in 2016 and 2017, short-term interest rates are assumed to gradually rise to 4.2% by June 2020 (Figure 1.12), still below their assumed long-run level of 4.5%, as monetary policy is tightened in New Zealand in response to higher inflation. However, short-term interest rates are expected to be lower than in the Half Year Update over the forecast period, owing to the OCR reduction in March and one additional reduction this year. Long-term interest rates are expected to rise from late 2017, to 4.4% by June 2020, as monetary policy is expected to be tightened in New Zealand and the US. However, the long-term interest rate forecast has been revised lower, as the US Federal Reserve slowed its anticipated pace of policy tightening in early 2016 from its previous projections.

Figure 1.12 - 90-day interest rates
Figure 1.12 - 90-day interest rates   .
Source: Reserve Bank, the Treasury

…together supporting investment growth…

Annual average growth in market investment is expected to begin to rise in late 2016, to 6.4% in 2017 and 7.3% in 2018. The pick-up partly reflects increased capital spending by farmers after several seasons of deferred investment and maintenance, and is supported by low interest rates and a recovery in farm incomes. Low interest rates are also expected to support business investment in other industries. The commercial and public sector elements of the Canterbury rebuild will also increase market and non-market investment respectively. However, non-market investment growth is expected to fall after the middle of 2017, reflecting the assumption of lower capital spending than the previous year and the relatively low dollar value of public infrastructure construction projects commencing over the next two years. See the Fiscal Outlook chapter for details on the capital allowance.

…including residential investment

House prices are expected to remain elevated in many parts of the country, particularly Auckland, after strong growth in 2016 and 2017, reflecting limits in the housing supply response to growth in housing demand. High house prices continue to underpin strong residential investment growth in the second half of 2017 and in 2018, but residential investment growth is expected to slow from 2019 (Figure 1.13), as declines in net migration inflows and higher interest rates lead to slower growth in housing demand.

Figure 1.13 - Residential investment
Figure 1.13 - Residential investment   .
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Positive domestic drivers more than offset declining net migration inflows

Net migration is projected to decline from its forecast peak of 70,700 in the middle of 2016, and return to its assumed long-run level of 12,000 per year in 2019, leading population growth to fall from 2.0% in 2016 to 0.9% in 2019. Reflecting slower population growth and rising interest rates, private consumption growth slows to 2.9% in 2017 and 2.5% in 2018, from 3.5% in 2016, and continues to ease for the rest of the forecast period. Real income growth is expected to slow as inflation picks up, and households are assumed to lower their saving rates to buffer reduced incomes and smooth their consumption to an extent.

Real public consumption growth begins to slow slightly in the second half of 2017 as inflation is expected to rise and growth in nominal government spending slows. The fiscal impulse is expected to be mildly contractionary in the last three years of the forecast, and to be broadly neutral over the period as a whole. See the Structural balance indicators box on page 38 for details on how discretionary changes in the fiscal position impact the economy.

Relatively low productivity growth…

Growth in labour productivity over the forecast period is projected to average 1% per year, slightly below its historical average. Below-average labour productivity growth reflects firms using a high proportion of labour in their input mix as growth is expected to be driven by the relatively labour-intensive industries. Below-trend labour productivity growth is expected to contribute to slowing growth in the productive capacity of the economy and to higher inflation. While per capita GDP growth is expected to pick up from 2017, it is forecast to decline again after mid-2019 as growth in labour productivity slows. (The box on page 24 examines in detail the relationship between labour productivity and per capita GDP.)

…contributes to a reduction in spare capacity in the economy...

The degree of spare capacity in the economy is expected to fall over the medium term, as growth in the labour force slows and labour productivity growth remains relatively subdued. The negative output gap, a measure of this spare capacity, narrows through 2017 and 2018, before closing fully in early 2019. This is reflected in a decline in the unemployment rate to 5.1% in June 2018 and 4.6% in June 2019, from a peak of 5.7% in 2016, as growth in the labour force falls below employment growth.

...leading inflation to return to two percent

Annual inflation is expected to return to 2.0% by late 2017, driven by a rebound in tradables inflation and steady increases in non-tradables inflation, although the return to 2.0% inflation is later than expected in the Half Year Update. Annual tradables inflation is expected to rise to around 0.8% in 2018 and 2019, assisted initially by the previous depreciation in the New Zealand dollar and as oil prices steadily increase and agricultural commodity prices recover. Annual non-tradables inflation is expected to rise at a steady pace, from 2.0% in June 2017 to around 3.0% by the end of the forecast, as capacity pressures in the economy and wage growth pick up and labour productivity growth remains slightly below average.

However, the possibility of low global growth and inflation over the medium term presents downside risks to tradables inflation, particularly given limited scope for monetary policy to respond to negative shocks in many advanced economies. The fall in inflation expectations in early 2016 suggests that low inflation outturns have lowered expectations of future inflation, which is expected to dampen price- and wage-setting across the economy, slowing the pass-through to non-tradables inflation from capacity pressures.

Nominal GDP growth accelerates

June year annual average nominal GDP growth is forecast to accelerate from 3.6% in 2017 to 5.6% in 2018, before declining to 5.1% in 2019. Nominal GDP growth then eases to 4.1% by the end of the forecast. Higher nominal GDP growth in 2017 and 2018 reflects high real GDP growth, the recovery in the terms of trade and rising inflation, the impact of which carries through to 2019. The large contribution from the higher terms of trade to nominal GDP growth in 2017 and 2018 is evident in the annual current account deficit, which narrows from a forecast peak of 4.6% of nominal GDP in the June quarter 2017 to a trough of 4.0% in December 2018. The current account deficit widens again in 2019 as nominal goods exports growth slows in line with growth in export prices, and as growth in import values remains high owing to solid demand and rising oil prices.

Compared to the Half Year Update, nominal GDP is cumulatively higher by around $17.3 billion over the five fiscal years to 2019/20, mainly reflecting an upward revision to growth in the 2016 June year (Figure 1.14). Higher nominal GDP increases projected tax revenue over the forecast period from the Half Year Update, particularly in 2015/16 and 2016/17. The Fiscal Outlook chapter discusses these changes in tax revenue in greater detail.

Figure 1.14 - Nominal GDP (annual)
Figure 1.14 - Nominal GDP (annual).
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Population growth and GDP per capita

The population is growing at its fastest pace in over 40 years. To employ a growing population and maintain incomes requires the total size of the economy to keep increasing. Growth in the total size of the economy is positive for nominal GDP and for tax revenue. However, growth in average income (or output) per person (ie, GDP per capita) is what matters for achieving higher material living standards. This box discusses the outlook for GDP per capita and the implications of revisions in the assumptions underpinning the outlook.

GDP growth can be divided into contributions from population growth and growth in GDP per capita. Growth in GDP per capita can be further decomposed into contributions from labour productivity (output per hour worked) and labour utilisation (average hours worked per person).

Increases in labour utilisation come from three main sources: growth in the share of the working-age population in the total population; increases in the proportion of the working-age population in employment (the employment rate); and increases in the average hours worked per employee.

Figure 1.15 shows that real GDP growth is forecast to be around 2.8%, similar to the average growth rate over the 1995-2015 period. It also shows that, over the forecast period, the contribution from population growth (1.5 percentage points per year) is higher than usual (1.1 percentage points per year), reflecting the strength of the current migration cycle. The corollary is that, over the forecast period the contribution from growth in real GDP per capita, of 1.3 percentage points per year, is below its 1995-2015 average of 1.8 percentage points per year, and its 1995-2008 average of 2.4 percentage points per year. However, the contribution from per capita growth is forecast to be higher than the post-2008 average of 0.5%.

Figure 1.15 - Contributions to GDP growth
Figure 1.15 - Contributions to GDP growth.
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Much of the forecast increase in average per capita GDP growth reflects the reversal of the large fall in labour utilisation that occurred in 2009 and 2010. Excluding this fall, GDP per capita grew at an average rate of 1.5% per year over 2011-2015. Prior to the fall in labour utilisation, the employment rate had been trending up, from around 60% of the working-age population in 1995 to a peak of 66% in 2008, and was the major contributor to increasing labour utilisation. Over this pre-2008 period, increases in labour utilisation contributed around 0.9 percentage points to the average GDP per capita growth rate of 2.4%; increases in labour productivity provided the balance. The employment rate fell to 63.5% in 2010 and remained around this rate until 2013 and subsequently increased to 65.1% in the March 2016 quarter. The employment rate is forecast to rise to 66% by the end of the period, contributing around 0.2% per year to growth in GDP per capita.

In contrast, average hours worked per person have trended down over much of the past 20 years, although they have been more stable in recent years (Figure 1.16). Reflecting this stabilisation, the Treasury has revised up its assumption of average hours worked per employee over the forecast period. By the end of the forecast period average hours worked per employee are around 1.0% higher than previously assumed, which flows through to increases in the Treasury's estimate of the productive capacity (or potential output) of the economy.

Figure 1.16 - Trends in average hours worked
Figure 1.16 - Trends in average hours worked   .
Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Partly offsetting the impact of increased average hours of work, growth in labour productivity is assumed to be lower than previously. This reflects both the strength of recent employment growth and the expected sources of growth underpinning the outlook. In particular, growth in construction, retail trade and accommodation, and other tourism-related sectors, which are expected to support growth, are relatively labour-intensive and tend to have relatively low levels of productivity. Labour productivity growth contributes around 1.0 percentage point per year to growth in GDP per capita over the forecast period, compared to a contribution of 1.2 percentage points over the 20 years from 1995 to 2015.

The net impact of the increase in average hours worked and slower labour productivity growth is a slight reduction in GDP per capita growth to 1.3% per year from 1.4% per year in the Half Year Update.

 

Fiscal Outlook

Overview

Table 2.1 - Fiscal indicators
Year ending 30 June 2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
$billions            
Total Crown OBEGAL1 0.4 0.7 0.7 2.5 5.0 6.7
Core Crown residual cash (1.8) (2.1) (4.2) (2.1) 2.0 3.9
Net core Crown debt2 60.6 62.3 66.3 68.3 66.3 62.3
Net worth attributable to the Crown 86.5 83.5 86.6 91.6 99.3 108.9
% of GDP            
Total Crown OBEGAL1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.7 2.2
Core Crown residual cash (0.8) (0.8) (1.6) (0.8) 0.7 1.3
Net core Crown debt2 25.1 24.9 25.6 25.0 23.1 20.8
Net worth attributable to the Crown 35.8 33.4 33.4 33.5 34.5 36.4

Notes:

  1. Operating balance before gains and losses.
  2. Net core Crown debt excluding the NZS Fund and advances.

Source: The Treasury

Key judgements and assumptions

The fiscal forecasts are based on assumptions and judgements developed from the best information available at the time they were prepared. Actual events are likely to differ from these assumptions and judgements. Uncertainty around the forecast assumptions and judgements increases over the forecast period.

The forecasts incorporate government decisions and other circumstances known to the Government and advised to the Treasury up to 29 April 2016.

In addition to the key assumptions underpinning the economic forecasts (refer page 9 of Chapter 1), the following key judgements and assumptions supporting the fiscal forecasts were made:

  • Tax policy changes enacted and announced by the Government (refer page 31) will take place as planned and will affect tax revenue and receipts.
  • Any future new spending or revenue reductions will be limited to the operating and capital allowances set by the Government. For further details of these allowances, see note 9 of the Forecast Financial Statements.
  • Departments will continue to spend less than the upper limits of approved spending (referred to as appropriations). A top-down adjustment is made to compensate for this. The adjustment will be higher at the front end of the forecast period as departments’ appropriations (and therefore expenses) tend to be higher in these years, reflecting departments have some flexibility around transferring underspends to later years.
  • The form and timing of divestment of social housing assets is still in its early stages. Only those divestments that are significantly progressed have been included in the forecasts (eg, the transfer of housing stock from Housing New Zealand Corporation (HNZC)).
  • Forecast returns of the large investment portfolios managed by ACC and the NZS Fund are based on their expectations of long-term benchmark rates of return for their respective portfolios.
  • Finance costs on new bond issuances are based on the five-year rate from the main economic forecasts and adjusted for differing maturities.
  • Discount rates and CPI assumptions are set centrally by the Treasury for use in key asset and liability valuations. Discount rates used in major valuations are set using current market rates. Future changes to discount rates and CPI are not forecast.
  • Significant valuations (eg, student loan portfolio, ACC claims liability and the Government Superannuation Fund (GSF) retirement liability) are based on underlying assumptions (eg, discount rates, salary increases and inflation) made at the time the valuations were prepared.
  • No revaluations of property, plant and equipment are projected beyond the current year. Only valuations that have already been completed are included in these forecasts.

Further information on the underlying economic assumptions used in the fiscal forecasts can be found on page 52.

Core Crown Tax Revenue

Tax revenue grows over the forecast period...

Core Crown tax revenue is forecast to rise in each year of the forecast period. By 2019/20, core Crown tax revenue is expected to reach $84.4 billion, $17.8 billion higher than for the June 2015 year. Core Crown tax revenue increases, from 27.6% of nominal GDP in 2014/15, to 28.2% of GDP at the end of the forecast period (Figure 2.1).

Figure 2.1 - Core Crown tax revenue
Figure 2.1 - Core Crown tax revenue.
Source: The Treasury

The main driver for the growth in tax revenue is forecast growth in nominal GDP (Figure 2.2). This graph also illustrates the timing lag between GDP growth and its impact on tax revenue. In addition, policy initiatives and other factors also influence tax revenue.

Figure 2.2 - Core Crown tax revenue and nominal GDP growth
Figure 2.2 - Core Crown tax revenue and nominal GDP growth.
Source: The Treasury

...with nominal GDP growth driving the bulk of the tax revenue growth

The stronger-than-expected tax revenue in the current year has been built in to these forecasts and is largely owing to growth in nominal GDP in the 2015/16 year with forecast nominal GDP growth of 3.5%, up from 2.8% in the 2014/15 fiscal year (Figure 2.2).

Nominal GDP and its components are the principal drivers of tax revenue growth through the forecast period, as shown in Table 2.2. Of the total $17.8 billion forecast increase in tax revenue, $14.4 billion is owing to macroeconomic factors, while $3.4 billion relates to other factors (discussed below).

However, growth in tax revenue owing to macroeconomic factors is not uniform across all years. Growth in tax revenues from corporate profits is forecast to be relatively subdued in 2015/16, owing to an expected decline in profits in the agriculture sector this year. Corporate profits and entrepreneurial income are expected to grow with contributions to corporate tax and other persons tax respectively, forecast to be larger in 2017/18 and 2018/19 than in the other years of the forecast period. Residential investment contribution to GST growth increases initially but then declines in 2019/20 (Table 2.2).

In contrast to these cyclical effects, growth arising from the two largest drivers of tax revenue, namely employees' compensation and nominal private consumption, is forecast to be comparatively steady throughout the forecast period. Employees' compensation is forecast to add $1.0 to $1.3 billion to source deductions (mainly PAYE) in each year of the forecast period and consumption adds $0.7 to $0.9 billion to GST each year.

Table 2.2 - Composition of growth in core Crown tax revenue over the forecast period
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total

Change in core Crown tax compared with previous year owing to:

           

Macroeconomic factors:

           
Employees' compensation 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 5.5
Private consumption 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 4.2
Corporate profits 0.1 0.3 0.9 0.8 0.5 2.6
Residential investment 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 1.2
Entrepreneurial income 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.9

Other factors:

           
Fiscal drag 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 1.1
Indirect tax CPI inflation indexation 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.6
Interest rates (0.1) (0.5) (0.1) 0.4 0.7 0.4
Interest-bearing deposit base 0.2 - - - - 0.2
Policy initiatives - - (0.1) 0.3 0.1 0.3
Other factors 0.5 (0.1) 0.2 0.2 - 0.8 
Total movement in core Crown tax revenue 3.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 4.1 17.8
Plus: previous year's tax revenue 66.6 69.7 72.0 75.7 80.3 66.6
Core Crown tax revenue 69.7 72.0 75.7 80.3 84.4 84.4
Percentage of GDP 27.9% 27.8% 27.7% 27.9% 28.2%  

Source: The Treasury

The other factors contributing the most to the forecast growth in tax revenue are:

  • fiscal drag (ie, the effect of higher average tax rates applying to higher incomes), adding approximately $1.1 billion to PAYE and the growth of source deductions across the forecast period
  • CPI indexation of excise rates adds $0.6 billion to customs and excise duties by 2019/20
  • although they have a negative effect on tax growth in the early part of the forecast period, interest rates are forecast to rise from 2018, overall increasing the interest RWT forecast by $0.4 billion
  • growth in the interest-bearing deposit base is forecast to add $0.2 billion to RWT in the 2015/16, and
  • various policy initiatives are expected to affect tax revenue from 2017/18 contributing an additional $0.3 billion to tax revenue by 2020. The policy initiatives line includes initiatives announced in both the Half Year Update and the Budget Update. See Additional Information on the Treasury website for details of the Budget Update policy initiatives (www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/forecasts/befu2016).

Inland Revenue has also prepared a set of tax forecasts which, like the Treasury's tax forecasts, were based on the Treasury's macroeconomic forecasts. The two sets of forecasts differ because of the different modelling approaches and assumptions and judgements made by the two agencies. This comparison is included in the Additional Information on the Treasury website.

Tax Expenditure Statement

The Treasury prepares a Tax Expenditure Statement annually in conjunction with the Budget Update. The purpose of this statement is to provide additional transparency around policy-motivated “expenditures” made through the tax system. Tax expenditures impact on the Crown's operating balance by either reducing tax revenue (eg, through an exemption or a preferential tax rate) or by increasing expenditure (eg, Working for Families tax credits). Refer to the Treasury website for a copy of the 2016 Tax Expenditure Statement.

(www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/2016/taxexpenditure).

Core Crown Expenses

Nominal core Crown expenditure increases...

Core Crown expenses are expected to grow by $12.5 billion over the forecast period from $72.4 billion in 2014/15 to $84.8 billion in 2019/20 (refer Figures 2.3 and 2.4). This nominal growth is largely attributable to Budget decisions and new spending set aside for future Budgets. Budget 2015 and Budget 2016 have added around $3.4 billion to expenses with $4.5 billion set aside for future Budgets. In addition, social assistance spending is forecast to increase by $4.1 billion, an average increase of $0.8 billion per year.

Figure 2.3 - Core Crown expenses
Figure 2.3 - Core Crown expenses.
Source: The Treasury
Figure 2.4 - Increase in core Crown expenses relative to 2014/15 actuals
Figure 2.4 - Increase in core Crown expenses relative to 2014/15 actuals.
Source: The Treasury

...reflecting new budget spending...

The Budget 2016 operating allowance averages $1.6 billion in each year of the forecast (excluding 2015/16) before reducing to $1.5 billion in Budget 2017 and remaining at this level for the rest of the forecast period. While the Budget 2016 net allowance is $1.6 billion, this includes a mixture of revenue and expenditure initiatives. The impact of the Budget 2016 changes is an increase in core Crown expenses beyond 2015/16 around $1.9 billion per year (Figure 2.5). Refer page 35 for further details of the Budget 2016 package.

Figure 2.5 - Impact of Budget 2016 and future Budget operating allowances on core Crown expenses
Source: The Treasury

For forecasting purposes, Budget allowances are assumed to be all operating expenditure. However, these allowances can be used for a combination of revenue and expense initiatives when allocated. New operating spending will be allocated to department baselines when Budget decisions are made.

...and increasing social assistance...

In addition to new Budget spending, social assistance spending is expected toincrease by $4.1 billion across the forecast period. New Zealand superannuation (NZS) payments account for $3.3 billion of this increase (Figure 2.6). NZS recipient numbers are forecast to increase from 665,000 in 2014/15 to 794,000 by the end of the forecast horizon. This growth in the number of recipients accounts for around 60% of the increase in NZS costs, with the remaining increase largely owing to indexation of entitlements to wage growth (Figure 2.7). By the end of the forecast period, NZS is around 54% of total social assistance spending (compared to 49% for 2014/15).

Figure 2.6 - Social assistance spending
Figure 2.6 - Social assistance spending.
Source: The Treasury
Figure 2.7 - Growth of NZS expenses
Figure 2.7 - Growth of NZS expenses.
Source: The Treasury

Other (non-NZS) welfare expenditure grows by $0.7 billion over the five-year forecast period with the largest growth relating to the income-related rents subsidy ($0.3 billion) driven by increases in tenancy places and market rents. While most welfare expenditure grows, expenditure on the Jobseeker Support and Emergency Benefit decreases by $0.1 billion across the forecast period, with expenditure on this benefit peaking in 2016/17.

...although as a percentage of nominal GDP, core Crown expenses reduce

Core Crown expenses peaked in 2011 and are continuing to decline as a share of GDP. Core Crown expenses are forecast to grow at a slower rate than the nominal economy, falling from 30.0% of GDP in 2014/15 to stand at 28.3% of GDP at the end of the forecast period (Figure 2.3).

2016 Budget new operating spending

The purpose of this box is to explain how the new operating spending allocated in Budget 2016 is incorporated in the fiscal forecasts. Details on individual initiatives can be found in the Summary of Initiatives in Budget 2016 document.

The 2016 net operating package totals $6.7 billion across the forecast period, an annual average of $1.6 billion (excluding spending in 2015/16). The package includes revenue initiatives that increase revenue by $1.2 billion and spending which increases expenditure by $7.9 billion (refer Table 2.3).

Table 2.3 - Impact of operating package
Year ending 30 June
$millions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total
Gross spending 230 1,976 2,152 2,086 2,243 8,687
Savings and revenue initiatives (45) (139) (344) (580) (853) (1,961)
Budget 2016 net operating spending 185 1,837 1,808 1,506 1,390 6,726
Increase in core Crown revenue - 60 88 431 610 1,189
Increase in core Crown expenses 185 1,897 1,896 1,937 2,000 7,915
Reduction in OBEGAL 185 1,837 1,808 1,506 1,390 6,726

Source: The Treasury

Revenue policy initiatives include increases in tobacco excise and changes to the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) (removal of the “one for two” policy).

Core Crown expenses increase by around $1.9 billion a year (excluding 2015/16) from the Budget 2016 operating package compared to additional spending of around $1.4 billion per year in Budget 2015. Expenditure is spread across a number of functional areas as outlined in Table 2.4 below. The core Crown expense tables in Chapter 6 outline the total core Crown expenditure on each of these areas after these increases.

Table 2.4 - 2016 Budget increase in core Crown expenses by functional classification[6]
Year ending 30 June
$millions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total
Social security and welfare 3 139 186 193 156 677
Health 3 597 569 573 581 2,323
Education (including tertiary) 73 142 148 172 293 828
Core government services 35 289 210 190 147 871
Law and order 65 239 279 246 246 1,075
Defence - 33 90 90 90 303
Transport and communications - 11 11 11 10 43
Economic and industrial services - 66 89 101 123 379
Heritage, culture and recreation 2 38 31 31 31 133
Primary services (1) 30 29 25 24 107
Housing and community - 42 32 31 32 137
Environmental protection 21 20 52 82 101 276
Other - 3 - - - 3
Forecast new operating spending[7] (16) 248 170 192 166 760
  185 1,897 1,896 1,937 2,000 7,915

Source: The Treasury

Notes

  • [6]The breakdown by functional classification above is based on a framework developed by the OECD. Therefore the categorisation may be different to the initiatives by vote as presented in the Summary of Initiatives in Budget 2016 document. For example, the Health functional classification above includes some expenditure outside of Vote Health, such as spending for the Health Research Council which is included in Vote Business, Science and Innovation in the Summary of Initiatives in Budget 2016 document.
  • [7]The amounts classified as “forecast new operating spending” represent centrally held contingencies that have yet to be allocated to a particular departmental baseline.

Operating Balance

Operating performance of the Crown strengthens…

OBEGAL is expected to be broadly in balance over the next couple of years. An OBEGAL surplus of $0.7 billion is expected in both 2015/16 and 2016/17. Surpluses are then forecast to grow, rising to $6.7 billion by 2019/20 largely owing to the growth in core Crown revenue exceeding growth in core Crown expenses.

Figure 2.8 shows the composition of OBEGAL from the different segments of the Government. The core Crown segment generally has the largest impact on OBEGAL and is forecast to have an OBEGAL surplus of $0.9 billion in 2015/16. There is a modest rise in the surplus to $1.2 billion in 2016/17 which is then forecast to double in 2017/18 and continue to rise over the remainder of the forecast period. These increases largely reflect growth in tax revenue outpacing growth in nominal spending.

Figure 2.8 - Components of OBEGAL by segment
Figure 2.8 - Components of OBEGAL by segment.
Source: The Treasury

State-owned Enterprises' (SOEs) contribution to OBEGAL is fairly stable with operating surpluses forecast to increase slightly across the forecast period.

Crown entities' (CEs) contribution to OBEGAL is marginal with small deficits across the forecast period.

...with investment returns and changes in long-term liabilities contributing to the operating balance…

The total Crown operating balance, which includes gains and losses, is forecast to be a deficit of $2.6 billion in the current year, with surpluses forecast again from 2016/17 growing to $9.6 billion in 2019/20. Figure 2.9 shows the growth in the operating balance and its components over the forecast period.

Figure 2.9 - Components of operating balance
Figure 2.9 - Components of operating balance.
Source: The Treasury

ACC and NZS Fund hold the largest investment portfolios and market movements in these portfolios can have a significant impact on the operating balance. NZS Fund is expected to record net losses on its investments in the current year. In addition, gains and losses on long-term liability valuations for ACC and GSF will also impact on the Crown's operating balance. In 2015/16, net losses are forecast with actuarial losses of $3.1 billion and $0.9 billion respectively forecast for ACC's outstanding claims liability and GSF's defined benefit liability. These losses were mainly owing to the impact of changes in discount rate assumptions and claims experience.

Beyond 2015/16, investment gains assume a long-term rate of return, resulting in investment gains increasing to $2.6 billion in 2019/20. The level of investment gains plays a significant part in increasing the Government's financial assets and contributing to growth in the Crown's net worth. The Crown's significant long-term liabilities such as ACC and GSF use discount rates and CPI assumptions in their valuations. However, as future changes to discount rates and CPI are not forecast they do not impact on gains and losses beyond 2015/16.

Gains and losses can be volatile and are sensitive to balance sheet movements. Refer to the Total Crown Balance Sheet section later in this chapter for further discussion of these sensitivities.

…and an improvement in our internationally comparable fiscal indicators

In addition to OBEGAL and operating balance fiscal indicators, the Treasury also calculates the net operating balance using the Government Financial Statistics (GFS) framework developed by the IMF. This framework is specifically designed for government reporting and is particularly useful when making additional comparisons with other countries. The net operating balance represents revenue and expenses of the core Crown (excluding the Reserve Bank) and CEs. It also excludes a wider range of valuation movements than OBEGAL, such as impairments and write-offs. In general, the net operating balance is around $2.5 billion to $3.0 billion higher than OBEGAL across the forecast period.

Further information on GFS can be found in the Additional Information section of the Budget Update, which is available on the Treasury website (www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/forecasts/befu2016).

Structural balance indicators

The Treasury calculates a range of fiscal indicators to help assess the relationship between fiscal policy and the economy. Further detail on these indicators can be found in the Additional Information section of the Budget Update, which is available on the Treasury website (www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/forecasts/befu2016).

Table 2.5 - Structural fiscal balance indicators
Year ending 30 June
% of GDP
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
OBEGAL 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.7 2.2
Cyclically-adjusted balance 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.8 2.3
Fiscal impulse[8] (1.1) 0.3 0.5 (0.3) (1.3) (0.4)

Source: The Treasury

Structural budget balance

The Treasury's headline structural fiscal balance indicator (the cyclically-adjusted balance (CAB)) is an estimate of OBEGAL adjusted for fluctuations of actual GDP around potential GDP. This means cyclical factors are removed so only the structural or underlying component remains. The economy is estimated to be operating just below its potential level in the current year, and this gap is forecast to close over time with only small differences between OBEGAL and CAB later in the forecast. This means that the forecast OBEGAL surpluses appear to be structural in nature rather than being caused by short-term cyclical factors.

Fiscal impulse

The fiscal impulse is an estimate of discretionary changes in the fiscal position, which can be expected to have an impact on aggregate demand in the economy. The average fiscal impulse across the forecast period is broadly neutral. Small positive fiscal impulses in 2015/16 and 2016/17 are caused by increases in the ratio of cash expenses to GDP in those years and by increases in capital spending. The negative fiscal impulses from 2017/18 to 2019/20 reflect reductions in operating spending (relative to GDP), and from 2017/18, a decline in capital spending.

Figure 2.10 - Structural balance indicators
Figure 2.10 - Structural balance indicators.
Source: The Treasury

Notes

  • [8]The fiscal impulse measure shown is the core Crown fiscal impulse plus CEs excluding Earthquake Commission (EQC) and Southern Response payments.

Capital Expenditure

The Government is forecast to spend a net total of $23.1 billion of cash on capital items over the forecast period, which includes purchasing physical assets (eg, school buildings), advances (eg, student loans), providing capital to CEs (eg, New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA)) and future new capital spending (Table 2.6).

In total, Budget 2016 has allocated around $2.6 billion in gross capital spending over the forecast period. Some of the capital spending announced in Budget 2016 ($0.4 billion) will not have a cash impact during the forecast period (eg, Public Private Partnerships; refer page 41), so are not captured in the $23.1 billion mentioned above. In addition, the gross spending announced in Budget 2016 has been partly offset by capital savings, resulting in a net impact of $1.4 billion (which is broadly consistent with the allowance set out in the 2016 Budget Policy Statement).

Table 2.6 - Net capital expenditure activity 2015/16 to 2019/20[9]
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total
Purchase of physical assets (2.5) (3.5) (2.3) (1.9) (1.8) (12.0)
Sale of physical assets 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 - 0.5
Net purchase of physical assets (2.3) (3.4) (2.2) (1.8) (1.8) (11.5)
Advances made (2.3) (2.1) (2.5) (2.4) (2.2) (11.5)
Repayment of advances 2.2 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.1 10.0
Net advances (0.1) (0.6) (0.4) (0.3) (0.1) (1.5)
Investments (1.9) (2.1) (1.5) (1.4) (1.3) (8.2)
Return of investments - - - - 0.1 0.1
Net investments (1.9) (2.1) (1.5) (1.4) (1.2) (8.1)
Top-down capital adjustment 0.1 0.6 - 0.1 0.1 0.9
Future new capital spending - (0.6) (0.7) (0.7) (0.9) (2.9)
Net capital spending (4.2) (6.1) (4.8) (4.1) (3.9) (23.1)

Source: The Treasury

Net capital spending is expected to increase significantly in 2016/17, with the largest capital spend in a number of years (Figure 2.11). The size of the forecast spend does increase the risk that some spending may be pushed into future periods as capacity constraints are tested.

Figure 2.11 - Net capital spending history (excluding NZS Fund contributions and the Government Share Offer)
Figure 2.11 - Net capital spending history (excluding NZS Fund contributions and the Government Share Offer).
Source: The Treasury

Some of the increase in 2016/17 has flowed through from delays in expenditure in 2015/16 and a large part of the increase is owing to a significant portion of the Budget 2016 spending expected to occur in 2016/17. Net capital spending then starts to decrease in 2017/18 before returning to a level consistent with previous levels.

Net capital spending consists of four main components (Table 2.6):

  • Net purchases of physical assets represent forecast spending by core Crown agencies to maintain and expand their existing asset base and includes spending on defence equipment and school property and also includes capital spending related to the Canterbury rebuild.[10]
  • Net investments largely represent capital injections to CEs, to maintain and expand their asset base, and are estimated to be between $1.2 billion and $2.1 billion a year. The largest capital injections across the forecast period are to NZTA for state highways (between $0.9 and $1.2 billion each year of the forecast). Capital injections to district helath boards (DHBs), Crown Fibre Holdings and Southern Response are also included.
  • Net advances largely relate to the issuance and repayment of student loans. Student loan issuances peak at $1.8 billion in 2020 with repayments of $1.4 billion forecast in the same year.
  • Net capital allowances of $0.9 billion are forecast for Budget 2017 and remain at $0.9 billion for subsequent Budgets. The allowances represent a net spend and may consist of a higher gross spend and capital savings when allocated. The new capital spending for each Budget is spread over four fiscal years reflecting the assumed profile of future spending. This profile is illustrated in Figure 2.12.
Figure 2.12 - Capital allowances (net)
Figure 2.12 - Capital allowances (net).
Source: The Treasury

Public Private Partnerships

In addition to purchasing assets directly, the Crown is also expected to acquire assets over the forecast period by entering into Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). A PPP is typically an arrangement between the Crown and a private sector provider for the construction and financing of an asset and for the delivering of services associated with that asset. As the assets are progressively constructed, the Crown recognises a work-in-progress asset at cost. At the same time, borrowings of the same value are also recognised, reflecting the Crown’s obligation to pay for the assets in the future.

Over the next five years around $1.8 billion of assets are expected to be built through new PPP arrangements (eg, Transmission Gully, Auckland East prison and new schools) with a corresponding impact on borrowings. The timing of the repayment of the borrowings will be dependent on the length of the individual contracts, which will generally be long-term in nature (eg, 20 to 30 years) and beyond the forecast horizon.

With regards to the current PPPs, all, with the exception of Transmission Gully which is managed by NZTA, are included within the core Crown segment.

Impact on residual cash

Cash flows in relation to PPPs will commence on the completion of the asset. Residual cash captures the operating and capital activities of the core Crown. Core Crown cash payments in relation to ongoing interest costs and maintenance will impact on residual cash. As the repayments of the obligations from PPPs are not operating or capital but financing in nature they do not impact residual cash.

Impact on core Crown net debt

Obligations under a PPP arrangement increase borrowings and gross debt and, if the PPP is within the core Crown reporting segment, they will therefore impact on core Crown net debt. In general, during the construction phase of the asset, core Crown net debt will increase and then gradually decrease as the obligation is paid.

Impact on Budget 2016 capital allowance

Of the $1.8 billion of assets expected to be built through PPP arrangements, around $0.4 billion has been managed within the Budget 2016 capital allowance. The remaining $1.4 billion is managed outside budget allowances as the funding will be obtained from existing sources (eg, the National Land Transport Fund in the case of Transmission Gully).

Table 2.7 - Profile of PPP construction
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total
Core Crown
net debt impact
Auckland East prison 0.1 0.2 - - - 0.3 0.3
Schools 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 - 0.5 0.5
Transmission Gully 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.0 -
Total PPP assets under construction 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.1 1.8 0.8

Source: The Treasury

Notes

  • [9]Negative balances in this table represent cash outflows, while positive numbers represent cash inflows.
  • [10]The total estimated cost to the crown of the Canterbury earthquakes and rebuild (both operating and capital) is currently forecast to be $17.2 billion. Refer note 24 in the Forecast Financial Statements chapter for further details.

Residual Cash and Net Core Crown Debt

[11]

Operating cash flows grow steadily...

Net operating cashflows are forecast to be in surplus across the forecast period. A surplus of $2.1 billion is forecast in the current year decreasing slightly in 2016/17 before increasing sharply to reach an operating cash surplus of $7.8 billion by 2019/20. Over the forecast period, the Government is expected to generate cash flows from core Crown operations of $20.7 billion.

The growth in operating cashflows largely mirrors the trend shown in core Crown OBEGAL. The strengthening of operating cashflows largely represents growth in tax receipts.

...outpacing capital spending near the end of the forecast period

The residual cash deficit is forecast to increase significantly in the 2016/17 year owing to increased capital spending forecast in 2016/17 exceeding the expected growth in operating surpluses. Net capital spending is forecast to exceed operating cash flows until 2018/19, when core Crown residual cash is expected to return to surplus (Figure 2.13).

Figure 2.13 - Core Crown residual cash
Figure 2.13 - Core Crown residual cash.
Source: The Treasury

Over the forecast period a cash shortfall of $2.5 billion is expected. This cash shortfall is funded largely through additional bond issuances (Table 2.8).

Net core Crown debt peaks as a share of GDP in 2016/17...

Net core Crown debt on a nominal basis increases for the first three years as a result of capital spending exceeding cashflows from operating activities (as discussed above) before starting to decline once residual cash returns to surplus in 2018/19, to stand at $62.3 billion at the end of the forecast period (Figure 2.14).

Figure 2.14 - Net core Crown debt
Figure 2.14  - Net core Crown debt.
Source: The Treasury

Net core Crown debt as a share of nominal GDP is forecast to peak at 25.6% in 2016/17 before reducing to 20.8% by 2019/20 and continuing to decline thereafter.

...and gross debt begins to decline after 2016/17

Gross debt is expected to peak at $93.9 billion in 2016/17. From 2017/18 forecast maturities are expected to exceed new debt being issued, and gross debt begins to decline. Gross debt is forecast to be $83.6 billion in 2019/20 which is equivalent to 27.9% of nominal GDP (Figure 2.15).

Figure 2.15 - Gross debt (Gross Sovereign Issued Debt (GSID) excl Reserve Bank settlement cash and bank bills)
Figure 2.15  - Gross debt (Gross Sovereign Issued Debt (GSID) excl Reserve Bank settlement cash and bank bills).
Source: The Treasury

The bond programme is expected to raise funds of $36.6 billion over the forecast period, while $33.0 billion of existing debt will be repaid, providing net cash proceeds of $3.6 billion (Table 2.8). Any excess cash proceeds raised from the bond programme are expected to be invested in financial assets and used to meet future debt maturities.

The issuance profile is relatively flat in order to reduce year-to-year volatility of bond programmes and ensure consistency of supply over this time.

Table 2.8 - Net increase in government bonds
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total
Face value of government bonds issued (market) 8.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 36.0

Cash proceeds from government bond issue

           
Cash proceeds from issue of market bonds 8.3 7.9 7.1 6.7 6.6 36.6
Repayment of market bonds (1.8) - (11.3) (11.5) (7.4) (32.0)
Net proceeds from market bonds 6.5 7.9 (4.2) (4.8) (0.8) 4.6
Repayment of non-market bonds (0.1) (0.7) (0.2) - - (1.0)
Net repayment of non-market bonds (0.1) (0.7) (0.2) - - (1.0)
Net cash proceeds from bond issuance 6.4 7.2 (4.4) (4.8) (0.8) 3.6

Source: The Treasury

NZS Fund contributions

No contributions to the NZS Fund are assumed in the forecast in line with the Government’s stated intentions to commence contributions once net core Crown debt falls below 20.0% of GDP as set out in the 2016 Fiscal Strategy Report (FSR). The table below provides a calculation of the annual contribution that would have been included in the forecasts if they were to resume in 2016/17.

Table 2.9 - NZS fund contributions
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Annual contribution 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.6
Forecast contribution - - - -

The underlying assumptions in calculating the required contribution in each year are the previous year's NZS Fund balance and projected series, over the ensuing 40 years of nominal GDP, net (after-tax) NZS expenses and the government five-year bond rate. The latter is used in calculating the Fund's expected long-run after-tax annual return. Over the forecast years, all Fund variables, apart from the capital contributions, are provided by the NZS Fund itself. Refer to the Treasury website for the NZS Fund model.

Notes

  • [11]Net core Crown debt and residual cash indicators are measured on a core Crown basis. Residual cash includes both operating and capital activity. This differs from OBEGAL, which is measured at a total Crown level and includes operating activity only.

Total Crown Balance Sheet

Increasing operating balance surpluses results in a stronger balance sheet...

Net worth attributable to the Crown is forecast to grow steadily in nominal terms across the forecast period largely owing to forecast operating balance surpluses. Beyond 2016, net worth attributable to the Crown is expected to grow by $25.4 billion to stand at $108.9 billion by 2019/20. As a share of nominal GDP, net worth is relatively stable at around 33.4% until 2017/18, when it starts to increase to reach 36.4% by 2019/20 (Figure 2.16).

Figure 2.16 - Net worth attributable to the Crown
Figure 2.16 - Net worth attributable to the Crown.
Source: The Treasury

...with assets expected to grow while liabilities remain fairly constant across the forecast

Total assets are forecast to grow by $32.0 billion over the forecast period to $310.7 billion in 2019/20 (Figure 2.17), made up of additional investments in assets (both physical and financial) of $70.2 billion, partially offset by reductions (largely depreciation) of $38.2 billion. At the same time, the Crown's liabilities increase $9.4 billion to stand at $195.8 billion in 2019/20.

Figure 2.17 - Total Crown assets
Figure 2.17 - Total Crown assets.
Source: The Treasury

The largest asset growth over the forecast period is in the social assets portfolio (around 50% of the total Crown balance sheet). Social assets (eg, schools, hospitals and social housing) are expected to increase by $16.6 billion over the forecast period to be $155.8 billion in 2019/20 (Figure 2.18). This increase reflects growing capital spending, particularly over the next two years. Liabilities in relation to the social sector (eg, tax refunds, ETS provision and payables and provisions in relation to social assets noted above) remain static across the forecast period. As a result social net worth is expected to increase.

Figure 2.18 - Social balance sheet
Figure 2.18 - Social balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

The financial asset portfolio (around 30% of the total Crown balance sheet) is expected to increase by $7.8 billion to be $94.8 billion in 2019/20, reflecting investment growth in the large investment portfolios (NZS Fund and ACC).

On the liability side, borrowings that are mostly undertaken by the Treasury's New Zealand Debt Management Office (NZDMO) (which manages the Crown's bond programme and funds forecast cash shortfalls), and the Reserve Bank. Borrowings in the financial sector are forecast to decrease by $3.1 billion by 2019/20. Insurance liabilities are expected to increase by $2.9 billion in the current year largely owing to increases in the ACC outstanding claims liability arising from updated actuarial valuations. Beyond 2015/16, ACC's insurance liability will continue to increase to stand at $42.1 billion in 2019/20. The GSF liability is forecast to be $11.3 billion in 2015/16 falling to $9.3 billion by 2019/20. Overall, net worth in the financial sector remains relatively static over the forecast period (Figure 2.19).

Figure 2.19 - Financial balance sheet
Figure 2.19  - Financial balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

The commercial asset portfolio (around 20% of the Crown's balance sheet) is expected to increase by $7.6 billion over the forecast period to be $60.1 billion in 2019/20, with growth coming from SOEs' investment in physical assets and growth in Kiwibank[12] mortgages. Commercial liabilities are expected to increase by $7.7 billion over the forecast period to stand at $39.8 billion in 2019/20, largely owing to growth in Kiwibank consistent with growth in its loan book. Commercial net worth remains static over the forecast period (Figure 2.20).

Figure 2.20 - Commercial balance sheet
Figure 2.20 - Commercial balance sheet.
Source: The Treasury

The Crown's balance sheet remains sensitive to market movements...

Many of the assets and liabilities on the Crown's balance sheet are measured at “fair value” in order to show current estimates of what the Crown owns and owes. While the measurement at fair value is intended to reflect the value of these items, it can be volatile, resulting in fluctuations in the value of the assets and liabilities reflecting changes in the market and underlying assumptions.

Refer to the Risks and Scenarios chapter page 65 for more details.

...and judgements and estimates will also impact on the balance sheet...

Apart from market factors, valuations are subject to a number of judgements and estimates with valuations based on underlying assumptions made at the time the valuations were prepared. In general, as time goes on, better information becomes available and initial estimates are updated to reflect current information. Some examples of this are noted below:

  • The carrying value of student loans is based on a valuation model adapted to reflect current student loans policy. As such, the carrying value over the forecast period is sensitive to changes in a number of underlying assumptions, including future income levels, repayment behaviour and macroeconomic factors such as inflation and discount rates used to determine the effective interest rate for new borrowers. Any change in these assumptions would affect the present fiscal forecasts.
  • GSF’s assets are offset against the gross liability and have been updated to reflect market values. GSF’s liability is valued by projecting future cash payments, and discounting them to the present. The value of assets over the forecast period reflects long-run rate of return assumptions appropriate to the forecast portfolio mix.
  • The ACC liability has been adjusted for the 31 March 2016 discount rate. This liability is valued by projecting future cash payments, and discounting them to the present. These valuations rely on historical data to predict future trends and use assumptions such as inflation and discount rates. Any changes in actual payments or economic assumptions would affect the present fiscal forecast. For example, if the discount rate decreases, the value of the liabilities would increase.

...while other risks remain

In addition to those items on the balance sheet there are a number of liabilities (and assets) that may arise in the future but are not yet included in our forecasts, either because they are contingent on an uncertain future event occurring (eg, outcome of litigation) or the liability cannot be measured reliably. If these liabilities crystallise, there will be associated costs with a negative impact (or positive in the case of contingent assets) on the operating balance or net debt. Refer to page 82 for a list of the contingent liabilities at 31 March 2016.

Notes

  • [12]The proposed sale of shares in Kiwibank to the NZS Fund and ACC does not impact on the total Crown balance sheet as Kiwibank will remain 100% owned by the Crown following any investment.

Comparison with the Half Year Update

The Half Year Update was published on 15 December 2015. Since then, there have been a number of developments that have significantly impacted the fiscal outlook. Table 2.10 below summarises the changes in the key fiscal indicators since then.

Table 2.10 - Key fiscal indicators compared to the Half Year Update
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year Total

Core Crown tax revenue

           
Budget Update 69.7 72.0 75.7 80.2 84.4  
Half Year Update 68.4 71.0 75.1 79.9 84.0  
Change 1.3 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.4 3.6

Core Crown expenses

           
Budget Update 74.4 77.4 79.7 82.0 84.8  
Half Year Update 74.9 76.8 80.7 83.3 86.2  
Change (0.5) 0.6 (1.0) (1.3) (1.4) (3.6)

OBEGAL

           
Budget Update 0.7 0.7 2.5 5.0 6.7  
Half Year Update (0.4) 0.4 1.0 3.5 4.9  
Change 1.1 0.3 1.5 1.5 1.8 6.2

Core Crown residual cash

           
Budget Update (2.1) (4.2) (2.1) 2.0 3.9  
Half Year Update (5.4) (4.7) (2.8) 0.5 1.9  
Change 3.3 0.5 0.7 1.5 2.0 8.0

Net core Crown debt

           
Budget Update 62.3 66.3 68.3 66.3 62.3  
Half Year Update 65.9 70.7 73.4 72.8 71.1  
Change (3.6) (4.4) (5.1) (6.5) (8.8)  

Net worth attributable to the Crown

           
Budget Update 83.5 86.6 91.6 99.3 108.9  
Half Year Update 86.9 89.6 93.1 99.3 107.2  
Change (3.4) (3.0) (1.5) - 1.7  
Year ending 30 June
% of GDP
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast

Net core Crown debt

         
Budget Update 24.9 25.6 25.0 23.1 20.8
Half Year Update 26.9 27.7 27.1 25.6 24.0
Change (2.0) (2.1) (2.1) (2.5) (3.2)

Source: The Treasury

A stronger economy has improved the fiscal outlook...

Stronger economic growth since the Half Year Update has improved the fiscal outlook, with tax revenue now expected to be higher in each year of the forecast period.

Core Crown tax revenue forecasts have been revised up by a combined $3.6 billion across the forecast period, mainly owing to the cumulative $17 billion increase in the forecasts (from 2015/16 to 2019/20) for nominal GDP. Forecasts for most of the major tax types have been increased as a result of this stronger nominal GDP outlook with the exception of RWT which is lower than in the Half Year Update owing to lower interest rates (Figure 2.21). Table 2.11 below summarises the movements by tax type since the Half Year Update.

Figure 2.21 - Movement in core Crown tax revenue since the Half Year Update
Figure 2.21 - Movement in core Crown tax revenue since the Half Year Update.
Source: The Treasury
Table 2.11 - Reconciliation of the change in core Crown tax revenue
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year Total
Core Crown tax - 2015 Half Year Update 68.4 71.0 75.1 79.9 84.0  
Movement in core Crown tax:            
                Corporate tax 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.9
                Other persons' tax 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 1.2
                GST 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 1.0
                Source deductions 0.2 0.4 0.2 - (0.2) 0.6
                RWT (0.1) (0.2) (0.4) (0.5) (0.3) (1.5)
                Other taxes 0.2 0.1 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 0.4
Total movements since the Half Year Update 1.3 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.4 3.6
Core Crown tax revenue - 2016 Budget Update 69.7 72.0 75.7 80.2 84.4  
As a % of GDP 27.9% 27.8% 27.7% 27.9% 28.2%  

Core Crown tax movements consist of:

           
Policy initiatives - - (0.1) 0.1 0.1 0.1
Forecast changes 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.2 0.3 3.5

Source: The Treasury

Corporate tax forecasts are $1.9 billion higher than in the Half Year Update. Company income tax receipts were substantially above the Half Year Update forecast as at the end of March 2016, whereas company income tax revenue was only slightly above forecast. This higher forecast tax base in 2015/16, together with a profit growth profile across the forecast period similar to that of the Half Year Update, has also increased the corporate tax forecast in 2016/17 and later years.

This Budget Update forecast contains an assumption that corporate tax revenue will largely “catch up” to receipts over the remainder of the current fiscal year, resulting in a $0.7 billion increase in the corporate tax revenue forecast in 2015/16.

The forecasts for entrepreneurial income, excluding the agriculture sector, are higher than in the Half Year Update which has resulted in a $1.2 billion increase in the other persons' tax forecast.

The GST forecast is $1.0 billion higher in total than in the Half Year Update owing to stronger forecasts of nominal consumption.

A higher forecast for employment growth has pushed the source deductions forecast higher than in the Half Year Update through 2015/16 to 2017/18. However, the weaker wage growth forecast, in response to the lower inflation forecast, has decreased the source deductions forecast. Towards the end of the forecast period, the wage growth effect dominates the employment growth effect such that, by 2020, the source deductions forecast is around $0.2 billion lower than in the Half Year Update.

In contrast to the above tax types, interest rate forecasts are lower than in the Half Year Update, which is the main contributor to the $1.5 billion reduction in interest RWT forecasts across the forecast period.

...with the fiscal outlook now stronger than previously forecast...

Overall, OBEGAL is expected to be higher in each year of the forecast compared to the Half Year Update (Table 2.12).

Table 2.12 - Changes in OBEGAL since the Half Year Update
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
OBEGAL - 2015 Half Year Update (0.4) 0.4 1.0 3.5 4.9
Changes in forecasts:          
       Tax revenue 1.3 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.4
       Social assistance 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.6
       Budget 2016 decisions - (0.2) (0.2) 0.1 0.2
       Increase in Budget 2016 allowance - (0.6) (0.6) (0.6) (0.6)
       Decrease in Budget 2017 and 2018 allowances - - 1.0 1.0 1.0
       Tax debt impairments 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
       ACC forecasts (0.2) (0.2) (0.1) (0.2) (0.2)
       Net finance costs (0.4) 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.5
       Other changes 0.1 (0.3) - (0.2) (0.3)
Total changes since the Half Year Update 1.1 0.3 1.5 1.5 1.8
OBEGAL - 2016 Budget Update 0.7 0.7 2.5 5.0 6.7

Source: The Treasury

Overall, social assistance spending is lower across all years of the forecast compared to the Half Year Update. Revisions to the CPI inflation forecasts have reduced forecast social assistance spending (excluding NZS) and higher total employee wages have resulted in amounts claimed by beneficiaries reducing. Improvements in the labour market have also resulted in fewer benefit recipients. In addition, forecasts for Working for Families have been reduced owing to these benefits having consistently been lower than forecast over the past few years and the assumption this trend will continue. Together, these factors have reduced spending by around $0.1 to $0.6 billion each year of the forecast.

Updated ACC forecasts have resulted in a decrease in OBEGAL in each year of the forecast and are largely owing to changes in valuation assumptions. Inflation rate assumptions have resulted in an increase in the ACC claims liability and higher insurance expenses across all years compared to that previously forecast.

Budget 2016 decisions impacting both revenue and expenditure (eg, business tax package, tobacco excise and ETS policy changes and budget package phasing adjustments) have collectively resulted in reductions to OBEGAL earlier in the forecast which then have positive impacts in the last two years of the forecast.

Budget allowances have been re-phased with the Budget 2016 allowance increasing to $1.6 billion (previously $1.0 billion) per year and the Budget 2017 allowance now $1.5 billion (previously $2.5 billion) per year. These changes in allowances have had a net positive impact on OBEGAL from 2017/18 onwards (Table 2.13).

Net finance costs are affected by the following factors:

  • Interest revenue has reduced in 2015/16 as a result of changes in the portfolio mix of financial instruments. A higher level of derivative instruments (earnings reported in gains and losses), rather than interest bearing instruments is now being held during 2015/16.
  • Decreases in short-term interest rates have resulted in a reduction in interest income particularly in the current year. Beyond the current year, the impact is lower owing to greater holdings of financial assets.
  • The stronger residual cash forecast has led to a decrease in the Government's borrowing requirements resulting in decreased debt servicing costs.
  • Lower medium-term interest rates have resulted in a reduction in finance costs and offset some of the unfavourable impacts beyond 2015/16.

The forecast impairment of Inland Revenue Department's (IRD's) debt portfolio is lower across the forecast owing to a review of IRD's debt portfolio for the most recent information leading to an update of its debt impairment assumptions.

...leading to a decrease in net core Crown debt by the end of the forecast period

Core Crown residual cash increases by $8.0 billion across the forecast period compared to the Half Year Update. The majority of the stronger cash position is a result of increased tax receipts ($4.0 billion), lower benefit payments ($1.8 billion) and lower net finance costs ($0.8 billion) over the forecast horizon. In addition, net capital spending is now expected to be lower by around $1.6 billion.

Overall, the impact from Budget 2016 capital decisions has had a positive impact on residual cash of around $0.4 billion across the forecast period since the Half Year Update. Gross capital spending announced in Budget 2016 was around $2.6 billion (net $1.4 billion). However, the impact on residual cash is somewhat lower as some spending has no cash impact during the forecast period (such as school PPPs of around $0.4 billion).

The reduction in cash deficits across the forecast period has resulted in net core Crown debt forecast to be $8.8 billion lower by 2019/20 when compared to the Half Year Update.

Changes to budget allowances

There have been a number of changes in allowances since the Half Year Update. The table below outlines changes to OBEGAL and net debt since then. Changes to operating allowances are detailed in the table while the capital allowance for Budget 2016 reduced from $1.7 billion to a net spend of $1.4 billion (a reduction of $0.3 billion).

Table 2.13 - Changes in budget allowances
Year ending 30 June
$billions
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
5-year
Total

Budget 2016 operating allowance

           
Budget Update 0.2 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.4 6.7
Half Year Update 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 4.1
Changes 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.4 2.6

Budget 2017 operating allowance

           
Budget Update - - 1.5 1.5 1.5 4.5
Half Year Update - - 2.5 2.5 2.5 7.5
Changes - - (1.0) (1.0) (1.0) (3.0)

Impact of changes on key fiscal indicators:

           
Budget 2016 operating allowance (0.1) (0.8) (0.8) (0.5) (0.4) (2.6)
Budget 2017 operating allowance - - 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0
OBEGAL increase/(decrease) (0.1) (0.8) 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.4
Reduction in capital allowance           0.3
Non-cash operating items           (0.5)
Reduction in net debt           0.2

Source: The Treasury

Some of the operating initiatives in Budget 2016 do not have a cash impact (namely ETS and reduction in tax debt impairments from the business tax package) and therefore do not impact on net debt.

Overall, there is a small decrease in net debt ($0.2 billion) by 2019/20, although the impact on OBEGAL is expected to increase over the forecast period and be more positive overall.

Key Economic Assumptions

The fiscal forecasts are prepared on the basis of underlying economic forecasts. Such forecasts are critical for determining revenue and expense estimates. For example:

  • a nominal GDP forecast is needed in order to forecast tax revenue
  • a forecast of CPI inflation is needed because social assistance benefits are generally indexed to inflation, and
  • forecasts of interest rates are needed to forecast finance costs, interest income and discount rates.

A summary of the key economic forecasts that are particularly relevant to the fiscal forecasts is provided in Table 2.14 below (on a June-year-end basis to align with the Government's balance date).

Table 2.14 - Summary of key economic forecasts used in fiscal forecasts
Year ending 30 June 2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Real GDP1 (ann avg % chg) 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.5
Nominal GDP2 ($m) 241,580 250,126 259,208 273,618 287,449 299,190
CPI (ann avg % chg) 0.6 0.2 0.9 2.0 1.9 2.1
Govt 10-year bonds (ann avg, %) 3.8 3.3 3.1 3.6 4.1 4.3
5-year bonds (ann avg, %) 3.6 2.6 2.3 3.1 4.0 4.3
90-day bill rate (ann avg, %) 3.6 2.6 2.2 2.3 3.3 4.1
Unemployment rate (ann avg, %) 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.3 4.8 4.6
Employment (ann avg % chg) 3.2 1.4 2.2 1.9 2.0 1.5

Notes:

  1. Production measure.
  2. Expenditure measure.

Source: The Treasury

Risks and Scenarios

Overview

  • This chapter outlines the chief economic and fiscal risks associated with the main forecast. The first part of the chapter outlines the key risks to the economic outlook. The second part of the chapter presents two alternative scenarios for the economy, and the remainder focuses on general fiscal risks. Overall, risks are skewed to the downside, as negative risks to the global economy outweigh domestic risks which are more balanced.
  • Internationally, the risks with the largest potential impact on the New Zealand economy relate to the demand and price for exports and low global inflation. These risks include a sharp slowing of growth in China and its impact on other economies, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. In advanced economies, such as the US, further moderation of growth and persistently low inflation carry substantial risk to the outlook. Overall, slower growth increases the vulnerability of the global economy to negative shocks as it reduces the scope for monetary and fiscal policy to respond. In addition, the international economy faces other risks, including the UK’s European Union membership referendum and geopolitical tensions in the Middle East.
  • Domestically, the risks with the largest potential impact on the New Zealand economy relate to downside risks around inflation dynamics in the face of the low global inflation environment and the recent decline in inflation expectations, and upside risks around a higher peak and/or prolonged migration cycle and stronger house price growth.
  • Two scenarios are presented that show ways in which the New Zealand economy could deviate from the main forecast. Scenario One is based on a weaker world economy in which trading partner growth slows sharply, global inflation is weaker, services exports fall and the terms of trade take longer to recover. In this scenario, nominal GDP, tax revenue and OBEGAL are lower. Scenario Two is based on sustained momentum in the domestic economy with stronger net migration into New Zealand, faster house price growth, higher private consumption, higher employment growth and stronger inflation. This scenario lifts nominal GDP, tax revenue and OBEGAL over the forecast period.
  • In addition to the risks associated with the economy, the Crown is also subject to expenditure and balance sheet risks. In particular, volatility in financial asset prices and interest rates can have a significant impact on the Crown's fiscal position.

Economic Risks

The key judgements underpinning the economic forecasts are subject to risks (see Key economic forecast assumptions box in the Economic Outlook chapter).

Global uncertainty has increased since the 2015 Half Year Update, reflected in heightened financial market volatility in the first months of 2016, and risks to growth in both emerging market and advanced economies remain skewed to the downside. Growth is expected to slow in China, other Asian economies, the US and the euro area.

There is risk of a sharper-than-expected slowdown in China, further impairing growth in other economies, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, with a risk that growth in Australia remains below trend for longer. While recovery in most advanced economies, such as the US and euro area, is expected to continue, albeit at a slower pace, there are risks that global growth moderates further and slower growth becomes entrenched with a more prolonged period of low inflation and interest rates.

The realisation of any of these downside risks to the world economy would weigh on economic growth in New Zealand, materialising as lower demand and prices for New Zealand's exports as well as adversely affecting confidence. Economic stability, as well as financial market stability, faces risks from multiple sources, including the possibility of a British exit from the European Union, geopolitical tensions in the Middle East and elsewhere, terrorist attacks in Europe and uncertainty regarding the impact and efficacy of highly accommodative monetary policy, particularly in the euro area and Japan.

Risks to the domestic outlook are more balanced. Risks around high net migration, tighter labour market conditions, faster growth in house prices and ongoing resilience in consumption are balanced by uncertainty around inflation dynamics, and the continuation of rapid tourism growth which has provided significant offset to weakness in goods exports, particularly dairy.

Sharper slowdown in China a key risk to the outlook…

Annual GDP growth in China has fallen from over 10% in 2010 to 6.7% in the March 2016 quarter as the composition of growth shifts from investment towards consumption. Heightened concerns about growth in China contributed significantly to elevated global financial market volatility in early 2016. In addition, falls in the Chinese stock market and the depreciation of the Renminbi in mid-2015 and early 2016 increased concerns that the Chinese economy is weaker and more fragile than headline GDP indicates.

While global financial markets have calmed recently, risks remain skewed towards a sharper slowdown in China, which carries with it the flow-on impact of slower growth in other trading-partner economies, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. A slowdown in China may be exaggerated if authorities do not support activity in order to avoid creating further imbalances, especially if the key risks of high levels of local government debt and a sharp downturn in the housing market increase.

Slower growth and heightened uncertainty about the outlook have been reflected in lower commodity prices, international trade flows, confidence and financial market volatility. A sharper slowdown would be expected to be transmitted as a more severe deterioration through these channels.

Over the medium term, risks around slower growth in China relate to how the transition from investment-led to consumption-led growth continues to evolve. The direct effect on New Zealand of a slowdown in China may be offset to some extent by the rebalancing towards consumption as the main driver of growth, as a successful transition could be positive for New Zealand by increasing Chinese demand for our mostly consumer-orientated primary products. That said, a sharp slowdown in China’s investment-led growth would weaken demand for hard commodities from Australia, lowering demand for their exports and in turn their income, directly affecting New Zealand.

…as well as further moderation of growth in advanced economies…

The outlook is for moderate growth in advanced economies. In addition to the flow-on impacts of slowing growth in China to other trading partners, risks to the Australian economy centre on a more gradual-than-expected transition in investment from mining to non-mining sectors, resulting in a longer period of below-trend growth. There is also some uncertainty about Australia's trend growth rate with slower population and productivity growth.

While the US recovery remains underway, the outlook is for more moderate growth in both 2016 and 2017, and consequently a more gradual tightening path for monetary policy. There remains some uncertainty around the possible unintended destabilisation of emerging market economies from tighter US monetary policy, but this has abated somewhat following the signalling of more gradual interest rate increases.

Likewise, the growth outlook for Japan and the euro area is for ongoing low and moderate growth respectively, with both economies facing policy challenges to stimulate demand.

…and with global inflation low…

Falls in oil and other commodity prices, as well as weak economic growth, have kept inflation low in most economies. Inflation excluding food and energy (ie, direct commodity price effects) remains below target in the major advanced economies, including the US. As interest rates in advanced economiesare close to zero (or below), in the event of further weakness in growth there is limited or no scope for further conventional monetary stimulus to provide a boost to demand.

Both the Bank of Japan and the European Central Bank have adopted quantitative easing and negative interest rate strategies in order to combat low inflation. However, there is much debate over the efficacy of negative interest rates as they are relatively untested and can lead to financial sector distortions.

…there is a higher risk that slower global growth becomes entrenched…

An outlook for slower growth leaves the global economy more exposed to negative shocks as it reduces the scope for fiscal and monetary stimulus (owing to a weaker fiscal position and/or lower policy rates than otherwise), and raises the risk that slow growth over the medium term becomes self-reinforcing. The combination of low inflation, low interest rates and slow growth over a prolonged period is sometimes referred to as “secular stagnation”.[13]

…and translates to weaker demand for key exports

The outlook for key exports, such as dairy and tourism, continues to be marked by uncertainty. Within the dairy sector prices are at low levels and are expected to recover only gradually. However, there is uncertainty about how international production will respond to lower prices, as there has been an increase in European production following the removal of the EU quotas, possibly owing to EU intervention prices distorting price signals. Global dairy production growth has been further supported by lower input costs from low oil and stockfeed prices and the strength of the US domestic dairy market. There is also uncertainty around the outlook for demand, particularly from China, and the removal of Russian import bans.

Visitor arrivals from China have been at all-time highs, supported by the depreciation of the New Zealand dollar in the middle of 2015 and the gradual loosening of travel restrictions in China, leading to robust growth in travel services exports. Similarly, arrivals on student visas from Asian countries are at high levels, although they have moderated slightly in recent months. A shift in travel preferences, significantly slower income growth and/or heightened uncertainty abroad pose risks to the outlook for both tourism and education services exports.

Weak inflation also a risk to the domestic economy…

The low inflation environment that characterises many advanced economies also characterises New Zealand. If weakness in global inflation continues, tradables inflation in New Zealand is likely to remain low. While the exchange rate depreciation in the middle of 2015 has provided a boost to tradables inflation, its impact is transitory. Over the medium term, tradables inflation is forecast to pick up to around 1% on average. However, this is heavily dependent on international developments as low global inflation will keep tradables inflation muted, all else equal.

In recent times, non-tradables inflation has been weaker than the long-term relationship with the output gap would suggest. In addition, inflation expectations are lower than previously, with persistent weak inflation weighing on expectations, offsetting the impact of a narrowing output gap to non-tradables inflation (see the box on Inflation in the Economic Outlook chapter).

While interest rate settings are considered stimulatory, it is not clear how far below neutral rates are. This is further compounded by possible changes in the sensitivity of businesses and consumers to low interest rates owing to heightened uncertainty in the current environment.If businesses and consumers are less sensitive to monetary policy than in the past, the boost to investment and consumption growth from low interest rates would be smaller than in the main forecast. In addition, heightened global financial market volatility, which characterised the early part of 2016, has increased funding costs for New Zealand banks accessing funds offshore. If global financial market volatility were to persist at high levels it would limit the pass-through of easier monetary policy settings, all else equal.

…and risk remains around the extent of the current migration cycle...

Annual net migration gains are assumed to begin declining from a forecast peak of 70,700 in June 2016 as labour market conditions in Australia improve and the New Zealand unemployment rate rises. However, it is difficult to gauge the strength and timing of these effects. If, for example, the Australian labour market materially improves in the near term, net migration inflows could decline more sharply than in the main forecast. On the other hand, the large inflow of students to date may suggest structurally higher permanent migration gains should more of those students remain in New Zealand.

...and the impact of net migration on housing and consumption

Housing demand is expected to be supported by high net migration and low mortgage rates in the year ahead. However, there is a risk housing demand and house price growth are stronger than in the main forecast, particularly given the risks around higher migration inflows. Faster nationwide house price growth than in the main forecast would boost household wealth and consumer confidence, possibly leading to higher consumption. Likewise, stronger housing demand could lead to stronger-than-expected residential investment growth. On the supply side, faster release of land for residential building in Auckland would lead to stronger housing construction than forecast. In addition, if the mobility of construction workers between Canterbury and other regions is greater than assumed, industry capacity pressures would be reduced and construction costs would be lower, supporting residential investment.

While faster house price growth presents a positive risk for economic activity, a sharp fall in Auckland house prices from an elevated level presents a downside risk to household wealth and therefore consumption, although this is unlikely without a major external trigger given the presence of strong economic fundamentals supporting demand. In addition, potentially higher household debt relative to disposable income presents a risk to financial stability as households will be more vulnerable to interest rate increases.

Notes

Alternative Scenarios

The following scenarios show how the economy might evolve if some of the key judgements in the main forecast are altered (Table 3.1). They illustrate two of the many ways that the economy may deviate from the main forecast. Scenario One illustrates the economic impacts of significantly weaker trading partner growth, in China in particular, with a sharp turnaround in services exports, a slower recovery in the terms of trade, lower inflation and elevated global uncertainty. Scenario Two shows the economic impact if recent momentum is sustained. In particular, stronger net migration and house price growth support consumption and residential investment growth with stronger inflation and employment growth.

Table 3.1 - Economic and fiscal variables for main forecast and scenarios
June years 2015
Actual
2016
Estimate
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast

Real GDP (annual average % change)

           
Main forecast 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.5
Scenario One 3.3 2.4 1.4 3.5 3.4 2.8
Scenario Two 3.3 2.7 3.0 3.5 2.8 2.6

Unemployment rate1

           
Main forecast 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.6
Scenario One 5.9 5.6 6.1 5.6 4.9 4.6
Scenario Two 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.1 4.7 4.6

Nominal GDP (annual average % change)

           
Main forecast 2.8 3.5 3.6 5.6 5.1 4.1
Scenario One 2.8 3.5 1.6 5.1 5.0 4.3
Scenario Two 2.8 3.8 4.3 6.1 5.2 4.2

Consumers price index (annual % change)

           
Main forecast 0.4 0.1 1.5 2.0 1.9 2.1
Scenario One 0.4 0.1 1.5 1.5 1.6 2.0
Scenario Two 0.4 0.6 1.7 2.2 2.0 2.1

Operating balance before gains and losses (% of GDP)

           
Main forecast 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.7 2.2
Scenario One 0.2 0.3 -0.2 0.1 0.9 1.5
Scenario Two 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.3 2.2 2.8

Net core Crown debt (% of GDP)

           
Main forecast 25.1 24.9 25.6 25.0 23.1 20.8
Scenario One 25.1 24.9 26.6 26.8 25.7 24.1
Scenario Two 25.1 24.8 25.1 23.9 21.5 18.8

Note:

  1. June quarter, seasonally adjusted.

Sources: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Scenario One - A Sharp Slowdown in Trading Partner Growth

A sharp slowdown in China leads to a fall in trading partner growth…

In the first scenario, trading partner growth deteriorates sharply in the near term as downside risks to the outlook eventuate. Specifically, growth in China slows sharply as consumption growth fails to offset the ongoing slowing of investment growth and as financial market volatility lowers consumer confidence. Fiscal and monetary policy are constrained by financial market stability concerns. The flow-on impact via trade and confidence slows growth in other key trading-partner economies in the Asia-Pacific region, including Australia, amplifying the severity of the reduction in China's growth. Growth moderates in other advanced economies, including the US, which are affected by the deterioration in global sentiment, albeit to a lesser extent than the economies that are more directly dependent on China.

Figure 3.1 - Trading partner growth
Sources: IMF, the Treasury

...and lower services exports...

Slower income growth abroad is compounded by heightened uncertainty about the future, leading to a significant reduction in tourist arrivals, particularly from China and the rest of Asia. This comes both from tourists adopting a wait-and-see approach to their travel plans, and from lower student numbers as a result of uncertain employment prospects at home. Accordingly, services export volumes unwind much of their 2015 gains, leading to lower employment in the services sector, lower domestic incomes and lower private consumption.

Figure 3.2 - Services export volumes
Figure 3.2 - Services export volumes.
Sources: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

…lower terms of trade and inflation…

The terms of trade pick up at a slower pace as the recovery in export prices is dampened by weaker global demand and inflation. Import prices decline on weaker global demand which provides some offset to the weaker export prices. The resulting slower recovery in the terms of trade reduces income growth, leading to slower growth in both private consumption and market investment.

The New Zealand dollar depreciates sharply in this scenario. The TWI-17 is around 14% lower than in the main forecast by June 2020 on the back of the heightened risk environment, lower terms of trade and widening current account deficit, which is 1.4 percentage points lower than in the main forecast by June 2020 at 6.2% of GDP.

The Reserve Bank responds to weaker demand by easing monetary policy further with the 90-day rate reaching 1.5% by 2017 (compared to 2.2% in our main forecast). However, in the near term heightened uncertainty around global growth, particularly in China, leads to increased financial market volatility and demand for safe-haven assets. Similar to the experience of early 2016, this could raise bank funding costs and risk premiums in the short term, limiting how much Reserve Bank interest rate cuts are passed on by banks and delaying the impact of easier monetary policy on domestic demand.

In the near term, tradables inflation is boosted by the lower New Zealand dollar. Until mid-2017 weaker non-tradables inflation broadly offsets stronger tradables inflation and headline inflation is similar to the main forecast. From the latter half of 2017, weaker non-tradables inflation persists, while the boost to tradables inflation from the New Zealand dollar depreciation dissipates, resulting in softer headline inflation over the remaining forecast period (Figure 3.3). Inflation does not return to 2.0% until 2020, when non-tradables inflation picks up as the output gap closes.

Figure 3.3 - Consumers price index
Figure 3.3  - Consumers price index.
Sources: Statistics New Zealand , the Treasury

…and softer real and nominal GDP

Over the forecast period, weaker exports and domestic demand drive both lower real GDP and nominal GDP. Over the course of the forecast period, nominal GDP is a cumulative $25.8 billion lower than in the main forecast.

Core Crown tax revenue is a cumulative $7.1 billion lower over the forecast period in this scenario. Lower nominal consumption and residential investment reduce GST revenue by a cumulative $0.7 billion over the forecast period and lower interest rates reduce RWT by a cumulative $1.0 billion. A lower value of output in the economy reduces business profits, resulting in corporate taxes being a cumulative $2.7 billion lower. The weaker labour market and lower labour incomes reduce source deductions revenue by $1.8 billion over the forecast period.

Figure 3.4 - Nominal GDP growth
Figure 3.4 - Nominal GDP growth.
Sources: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Core Crown expenses are a cumulative $1.1 billion higher than in the main forecast, owing to increased debt financing costs and welfare expenses. Discretionary fiscal policy is assumed to remain unchanged from the main forecast. In this scenario, OBEGAL reaches a small deficit of 0.2% of GDP in the June 2017 year, with growing surpluses thereafter (Figure 3.8). As a consequence, net core Crown debt peaks at 26.8% of nominal GDP in the June 2018 year, rather than peaking at 25.6% in the June 2017 year, as in the main forecast (Figure 3.9).

Scenario Two - Sustained Momentum in the Domestic Economy

Solid activity persists

In the second scenario, solid growth which characterised the latter half of 2015 continues in the near term. This is reflected widely across the economy, as the net migration cycle comes off its peak a little slower than in the main forecast (Figure 3.5), solid house price growth persists and employment growth is higher. Inflation is stronger in the near term reflecting a stronger-than-expected outturn in the 2016 March quarter and additional pass-through from the exchange rate depreciation in the middle of 2015 to tradables. In addition, non-tradables inflation picks up faster than expected on the back of higher incomes and stronger demand.

Figure 3.5 - Net permanent and long-term migration
Figure 3.5 - Net permanent and long-term migration.
Sources: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Stronger net migration and house price growth support consumption and residential investment…

Higher net migration leads to increased demand for housing, which flows through to faster house price growth and higher residential investment. The combination of stronger net migration and house price growth leads to faster private consumption growth which is marginally higher over the forecast horizon (Figure 3.6). However, household debt relative to disposable income is higher, reflecting higher consumer confidence.

Figure 3.6 - Real private consumption growth
Figure 3.6 - Real private consumption growth.
Sources: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

…leading to higher inflationary pressures and interest rates

Stronger near-term inflation outturns in combination with solid domestic demand result in inflation returning to 2% slightly earlier than in the main forecast (Figure 3.3). The Reserve Bank responds to stronger demand by increasing the OCR earlier than in the main forecast, resulting in slightly higher 90-day interest rates from September 2017 (Figure 3.7). The impact of higher household debt relative to disposable income and higher interest rates on real consumption growth is uncertain. However, given household debt and interest rates are only marginally higher than in the main forecasts, any impact is likely to be minor.

Figure 3.7 - 90-day interest rates
Figure 3.7 - 90-day interest rates.
Sources: Reserve Bank, the Treasury

…and higher nominal GDP…

Sustained momentum in the near term and higher inflation, combined with higher residential investment and consumption, result in nominal GDP being a cumulative $15.8 billion larger than in the main forecast by the end of June 2020.

…increasing tax revenue and the operating balance

Core Crown tax revenue is a cumulative $5.0 billion higher than in the main forecast over the period to June 2020. Increased nominal consumption and residential investment boost GST revenue by a cumulative $1.1 billion over the forecast period. Greater business profitability results in corporate taxes being a cumulative $1.3 billion higher. The stronger labour market and higher wage growth lift source deductions revenue by $1.5 billion over the forecast period. An earlier increase in short-term interest rates flows through to a cumulative $0.4 billion rise in RWT.

Figure 3.8 - Total Crown OBEGAL
Figure 3.8 - Total Crown OBEGAL.
Source: The Treasury

Core Crown expenses are marginally lower than in the main forecast owing largely to lower debt financing costs. OBEGAL surpluses are larger over the entire forecast period reaching a surplus of 2.8% of GDP by the June 2020 year, compared to 2.2% in the main forecasts (Figure 3.8). Net core Crown debt peaks at a lower level of 25.1% of GDP in the June 2017 year, and it subsequently declines faster to 18.8% of GDP in the June 2020 year, compared to 20.8% in the main forecast (Figure 3.9).

Figure 3.9 - Net core Crown debt
Figure 3.9 - Net core Crown debt.
Source: The Treasury

General Fiscal Risks

The remainder of this chapter focuses on the links between the economic risks and the Crown's fiscal position. For more on fiscal risks, see the Specific Fiscal Risks chapter.

Revenue Risks

One of the major sources of risk to the fiscal position arises from the inherent uncertainty about future tax revenue, which accounts for around 70% of the Crown's revenue. As indicated by the scenarios set out in this chapter, the amount of tax revenue that the Crown receives in a given year is closely linked to the performance of the economy.

Figure 3.10 plots the main annual tax revenue forecast, along with confidence intervals around these forecasts based on the Treasury's historical tax forecast variances and the assumption of an even balance of risks around the main forecast.[14] The outermost shaded area captures the range ±$7.1 billion in the June 2020 year, within which actual tax outturns are expected to fall 80% of the time.[15]

Figure 3.10 - Core Crown tax revenue uncertainty
Figure 3.10 - Core Crown tax revenue uncertainty.
Source: The Treasury

The tax revenue forecasts from the two scenarios are also shown in Figure 3.10. The 2008/09 global financial crisis showed that exogenous shocks can have severe impacts on government revenue. Should any of the uncertainties outlined in the Economic Riskssection eventuate, Crown revenue would be different from forecast, with Scenarios One and Two being examples of possible outcomes.

Based on average historical forecast variances, Figure 3.10 suggests that an annual tax revenue outturn associated with Scenario One lies between the 25th and 50th percentiles. An annual tax revenue outturn associated with Scenario Two lies between the 50th and 75th percentiles in each year. On this basis, actual tax outcomes would be expected to fall within the range of the two alternative scenarios approximately half of the time, with greater or lesser outcomes also expected approximately half of the time.

There are also risks around other sources of revenue including sales of goods and services, investment income, and fees and levies. This additional revenue is also subject to changes in economic conditions, such as changes in interest rates which impact investment income and changes in oil prices which impact the amount of petroleum royalties the Crown receives.

Notes

Fiscal Sensitivities

Table 3.2 provides some rules of thumb on the sensitivities of the fiscal position to small changes in specific variables. For example, if nominal GDP growth is one percentage point higher than forecast in each year up to June 2020, tax revenue would be around $4.4 billion higher than forecast in the June 2020 year as a result. The sensitivities are broadly symmetric and if nominal GDP growth is one percentage point lower than expected each year, tax revenue would be around $4.2 billion lower than forecast in the June 2020 year. The figures are indicative and can be influenced by the composition of growth as different types of activity have different effective tax rates.

A different interest rate path from that forecast would also impact on the fiscal position. A one percentage point lower interest rate would result in interest income on funds managed by the Treasury's NZDMO being $110 million lower in the June 2020 year. This would be more than offset by interest expenses $340 million lower in the June 2020 year.

Table 3.2 - Fiscal sensitivity analysis
Year ending 30 June
($millions)
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast

Impact on tax revenue of a 1 percentage point increase in growth of

         
Nominal GDP 715 1,480 2,330 3,305 4,370
Wages and salaries 305 640 1,000 1,400 1,850
Taxable business profits 145 325 530 765 1,015

Impact of 1% lower interest rates on

         
Interest income1 (32) (127) (132) (112) (107)
Interest expenses1 1 (77) (195) (261) (343)
Net impact on operating balance (34) (51) 63 149 236

Note:

  1. Funds managed by the Treasury's NZDMO only.

Source: TheTreasury

Expenditure Risks

One-off and unexpected expenditure shocks can also have a large impact on the Crown's operating balance in the year that they occur. Over-forecasting of expenditure leads to policy being tighter than otherwise, and uncertainty is inherent in forecasting the cost of new policy initiatives.

There is also considerable uncertainty regarding the effect of the performance of the economy on Crown expenditures. This uncertainty relates largely to the operation of the so-called automatic stabilisers. For example, if the economy performs better (worse) than expected in a given year, official expenditures on social programmes may be lower (higher) than planned.

In recent years, the Canterbury earthquakes have demonstrated the inherent exposure of the Crown's fiscal position to unexpected events. The Crown's fiscal position would be affected if another catastrophic earthquake were to occur or if the costs associated with prior events exceed the updated estimates.

The ageing population implies increased public expenditure, especially for health and superannuation spending. If this cannot be accommodated within operating allowances, it presents risks to the medium-term fiscal position, particularly given uncertainty around demographic forecasts. Likewise, uncertainty around population growth presents a risk of increased demand for public services which may result in increased expenditure, including education and health spending.

Balance Sheet Risks

In addition to risks around revenue and expenditure, which affect the balance sheet through their impact on the operating balance, the Crown's financial position is also exposed to risk through change in the value of the Crown's assets or liabilities. The balance sheet can also be affected owing to the Crown having both explicit and implicit obligations (a strong expectation that the Crown would respond to an event) as a result of policy settings.

A large source of balance sheet risk can be attributed to changes in the value of the Crown's assets and liabilities owing to movements in market variables such as interest rates, exchange rates and equity prices. These changes can also have an impact on the Crown's operating balance. Of the Crown's aggregate financial risk, a significant proportion can be attributed to market risk. Three areas of the balance sheet are particularly susceptible to various types of market risk:

  • Financial assets held by the Crown Financial Institutions (CFIs) are sensitive to financial-market volatility. CFIs tend to diversify their portfolios across a range of financial assets to manage exposures to specific market risks.
  • Insurance and retirement liabilities and provisions are prone to market volatility through their actuarial valuations, which are sensitive to assumptions about variables such as interest and inflation rates.
  • Physical assets such as land, buildings, state highways and military equipment are susceptible to valuation movements through changes in property market conditions, interest rates and changes in the costs of construction.

Other large sources of balance sheet risk are contingent and implicit liabilities relating to natural disasters and financial system stress. The Specific Fiscal Risks chapter discusses contingent assets and liabilities in greater detail.

Business risks, relating to the broader commercial environment, may also affect the Crown's balance sheet. A number of entities owned by the Crown, including commercial and social entities, have their financial performance and valuations impacted by these external factors.

While the Crown's exposure to risks is sometimes unavoidable, the Crown's general approach is to identify, measure and treat these risks where practicable. When a risk cannot be avoided or reduced, the Government's response has been to increase the Crown's resilience by reducing debt ahead of the time when financial resources could be needed, or increase sustainability through achieving higher levels of net worth. This helps to absorb the impact of the risk through the balance sheet so that the wider economy need not adjust immediately at a greater economic cost.

The New Zealand government remains amongst the highest-rated sovereigns globally, with the top Aaa foreign-currency rating from Moody's and AA foreign-currency ratings from Standard & Poor's and Fitch. Ratings outlooks are stable from all three agencies.

In the case of an increase in global risk aversion and in the absence of a marked improvement in the external position, New Zealand may face increased funding pressure in the future. All else being equal, deterioration in the ratings outlook could raise debt-servicing costs and lessen the funding capability for the Crown. The Crown is also susceptible to “liquidity risk” with respect to its ability to raise cash to meet its obligations. This risk is relatively small and managed by each agency to meet its specific liquidity risk requirements and by the Treasury's NZDMO to manage the Crown's liquidity requirements.

For additional detail, refer to the 2014 Investment Statement which provides information on the shape and health of the Crown's portfolio of assets and liabilities at the end of the 2013/14 financial year.[16] It outlines how the balance sheet has changed in recent years and includes forecasts of its anticipated composition and size through to 30 June 2018.

Specific Fiscal Risks

The Statement of Specific Fiscal Risks is required by the Public Finance Act 1989 to set out, to the fullest extent possible, all government decisions and other circumstances known to the Government at the date of the finalisation of the fiscal forecasts that may have a material effect on the fiscal and economic outlook, but are not certain enough in timing or amount to include in the fiscal forecasts. Although the process for disclosure of specific fiscal risks involves a number of parties, including government departments, the Treasury and the Minister of Finance, there remains a possibility that not every significant risk is identified. Disclosure of known risks is also subject to specific requirements and materiality thresholds.

Overview

Specific fiscal risks can be positive or negative and can affect revenue or spending or assets and liabilities. The links between external events and spending are indirect because new policies that change spending and revenue usually require a decision by the Government and approval from Parliament. The approach taken in this chapter is to disclose those potential policy decisions and key areas of uncertainty that may have a material effect on the fiscal outlook.

Established practice is that the Government sets aside allowances of new funding for future Budgets to manage uncertainty and cost pressures. These allowances are included in the fiscal forecasts. Current fiscal management policy is for future policy decisions affecting operating expenses or capital expenditure to be met through reprioritisation or from within existing allowances included in the fiscal forecasts. Future policy decisions are risks to the fiscal forecasts only to the extent that they cannot be managed from within:

  • for operating expenditure, existing baselines or the allowance in the fiscal forecasts for forecast new operating expenditure, or
  • for capital, the existing Crown balance sheet or the allowance in the fiscal forecasts, for forecast new capital spending.

Notwithstanding this, known material policy risks are identified as specific fiscal risks, even though the Government has more control in managing such risks through reprioritisation, the existing Crown balance sheet and the Budget allowances. This is done to ensure a prudent approach to the disclosure of risks, improve transparency and not pre-judge future decisions by governments.

The specific fiscal risks are categorised into:

  • Potential policy decisions affecting revenue: For example, changes to tax policy or ACC levies could reduce or increase government income.
  • Potential policy decisions affecting expenses (expected to be funded from reprioritisation or the Budget operating allowance): Costs of policy proposals could increase or decrease expenses depending on decisions taken, and they are risks to the fiscal forecasts only to the extent that they cannot be managed within existing baselines or Budget allowances.
  • Potential capital decisions (expected to be funded from the existing Crown balance sheet, or the Budget capital allowance): Capital investment decisions are risks to the fiscal forecasts only to the extent that they cannot be managed within the existing Crown balance sheet, or the Budget capital allowance.
  • Matters dependent on external factors: The Crown's liability for costs is sometimes dependent on external factors such as the outcome of negotiations or international obligations.

A range of generic risks to the fiscal forecasts exist but are not separately disclosed as specific fiscal risks:

  • Risks from changes to economic assumptions; the most significant economic risks have been identified in Chapter 3.
  • Business risks and volatility in the returns from and valuation of the Crown's investments relating to the broader economic and commercial environment.
  • General cost pressures, such as those associated with demographic changes (eg, an ageing population).
  • Potential risks from changes in demand for government services or transfer payments owing to underlying structural factors (such as changes in demand for Jobseeker Support).
  • The costs of future individual natural disasters, biosecurity incursions, and other major events, as they usually occur infrequently and their occurrence, nature and timing cannot be predicted. Once a disaster does occur, a number of choices arise about how to respond and when potential liabilities are recognised (eg, through setting aside an allocation of funding). Specific risks are disclosed at this point based on the range of possible responses.

The final part of the chapter contains a current list of contingent liabilities and contingent assets. Contingent liabilities are costs that the Crown will have to face if a particular event occurs or are present liabilities that are unable to be measured. Typically, contingent liabilities consist of guarantees and indemnities, legal disputes and claims on uncalled capital. The largest quantified contingent liabilities are to international financial organisations and mostly relate to uncalled capital and promissory notes. Contingent assets are possible assets that have arisen from past events but the value of the asset, or whether it will eventuate, will not be confirmed until a particular event occurs.

Criteria and Rules for Inclusion in the Fiscal Forecasts or Disclosure as Specific Fiscal Risks

The Public Finance Act 1989 requires that the Statement of Specific Fiscal Risks sets out all government decisions, contingent liabilities or contractual obligations known to the Government and subject to specific requirements that may have a material effect on the economic or fiscal outlook.

The criteria and rules set out below are used to determine if government decisions or other circumstances should be incorporated into the fiscal forecasts, disclosed as specific fiscal risks or, in some circumstances, excluded from disclosure.

Criteria for Including Matters in the Fiscal Forecasts

Matters are incorporated into the fiscal forecasts provided they meet the following criteria:

  • The matter can be quantified for particular years with reasonable certainty.
  • A decision has been taken, or a decision has not yet been taken but it is reasonably probable[17] the matter will be approved, or it is reasonably probable the situation will occur.

Additionally, any other matters may be incorporated into the forecasts if the Secretary to the Treasury considers, using best professional judgement, that the matters may have a material effect on the fiscal and economic outlook and are certain enough to include in the fiscal forecasts.

Rules for the disclosure of specific fiscal risks 

Matters are disclosed as specific fiscal risks if:

  • the likely impact is more than $100 million over five years, and either
  • a decision has not yet been taken but it is reasonably possible[18] (but not probable) that the matter will be approved or the situation will occur, or
  • it is reasonably probable that the matter will be approved or the situation will occur, but the matter cannot be quantified or assigned to particular years with reasonable certainty.

Additionally, any other matters may be disclosed as specific fiscal risks if the Secretary to the Treasury considers, using best professional judgement, that the matters may have a material effect (more than $100 million over five years) on the fiscal and economic outlook but are not certain enough to include in the fiscal forecasts.

Notes

  • [17]For these purposes “reasonably probable” is taken to mean that the matter is more likely than not to be approved within the forecast period (by considering, for example, whether there is a better than 50% chance of the matter occurring or being approved).
  • [18]For these purposes “reasonably possible” is taken to mean that the matter might be approved within the forecast period (by considering, for example, whether there is a 20% to 50% chance of the matter occurring or being approved).

Exclusions from Disclosure

Matters are excluded from disclosure as specific fiscal risks if they fail to meet the materiality criterion (ie, are less than $100 million over five years), or if they are unlikely[19] to be approved or occur within the forecasting period.

Additionally, the Minister of Finance may determine, under section 26V of the Public Finance Act 1989, that a matter be included in the fiscal forecasts or a specific fiscal risk not be disclosed, if such disclosure would be likely to:

  • prejudice the substantial economic interests of New Zealand
  • prejudice the security or defence of New Zealand or international relations of the Government
  • compromise the Crown in a material way in negotiation, litigation or commercial activity, or
  • result in a material loss of value to the Crown.

If possible, the Minister of Finance should avoid withholding the matter, either by making a decision on it before the forecasts are finalised, or by disclosing it without quantifying the risk.

Notes

  • [19]For these purposes “unlikely” is taken to mean that the matter will probably not be approved within the forecast period (by considering, for example, whether there is a less than 20% chance of the matter occurring or being approved).

Statement of Specific Fiscal Risks

Summary Table

The matters listed below are disclosed as specific fiscal risks because they meet the rules for disclosure outlined before this Statement. Full descriptions of the risks listed below are set out in the next section. Where quantification is possible, this is included in the description of the risk.

Specific fiscal risks as at 29 April 2016
Portfolio name (if appropriate) - specific fiscal risk title Status [20]

Potential policy decisions affecting revenue

 
ACC - ACC Levies Unchanged
Fire Service Levy New
Revenue – Tax Policy Work Programme Changed
Services Funded by Third Parties Unchanged

Potential policy decisions affecting expenses (expected to be funded from
reprioritisation or the Budget operating allowance):

 
ACC – Work-related Gradual Process Disease and Infection Unchanged
Budget Operating Initiatives Unchanged
Concessionary Loans Unchanged
Defence Force - Operating and Capital Cost Changed
Fire Service Expenses New
Finance - Tamaki Regeneration Programme Changed
Greater Christchurch Regeneration- Christchurch Central Recovery Plan - Anchor Projects Unchanged
Revenue  - Transformation and Technology Renewal Unchanged
Social Development - Child, Youth and Family Modernisation Changed
Social Development - Welfare Reform Forecast Benefit Savings Unchanged
Social Housing - Social Housing Reform Changed
State Sector Employment Agreements Unchanged
Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment - Tertiary Funding New
Treaty Negotiations - Government Response to Wai 262 Unchanged

Potential capital decisions (expected to be funded from the existing Crown
balance sheet or the Budget capital allowance):

 
Agency Capital Intentions Unchanged
Finance – Crown Overseas Properties Unchanged
Parliamentary Service – Parliamentary Accommodation Unchanged
Primary Industries  – Investment in Water Infrastructure Unchanged
Transport - Auckland Transport Projects Unchanged
Transport - Regional State Highways Changed
Transport - Support for KiwiRail Unchanged
Unexpected Maintenance for Crown-owned Buildings Changed

Matters dependent on external factors

 
ACC – ACC Non-earners' Account Unchanged
Defence Force – Potential Rationalisation, Revaluation and Disposal of NZDF Assets Unchanged
Energy and Resources – Crown Revenue from Petroleum Royalties Unchanged
Finance - Air New Zealand Sale of Virgin Australia Shareholding New
Finance – EQC Unchanged
Finance – Goodwill on Acquisition Unchanged
Greater Christchurch Regeneration - Residential Red Zone Unchanged
Housing New Zealand Corporation (HNZC) - Divestment and Development of HNZC Housing Unchanged
Pay Equity and Caregiver Employment Conditions Unchanged
Revenue – Cash Held in Tax Pools Unchanged
Revenue – Student Loans Unchanged
Treaty Negotiations – Relativity Clause Unchanged
Treaty Negotiations – Treaty Settlement Forecasts Unchanged

Notes

  • [20] Unchanged - risks where the nature and/or scale of the risk has not changed substantively since the previous Economic and Fiscal Update.
    I - risks where the nature and/or scale of the risk has changed substantively since the previous Economic and Fiscal Update.

Potential Policy Decisions Affecting Revenue

ACC - ACC Levies (Unchanged)

Indicative future levy rates for the Work, Earners' and Motor Vehicle accounts are based on the funding policy agreed by Cabinet. The indicative levy path based on the policy has been included in the forecasts. However, final levy decisions are made by the Government, and may differ from the forecast levy path if the Government chooses levy rates that do not reflect the funding policy or if it subsequently changes the funding policy. In addition, revenue from the levies set for these accounts may be more or less than is required to cover the cost of claims. If factors such as claims experience, ACC performance, economic assumptions (particularly discount rates and unemployment rates) turn out differently from what has been forecast, ACC’s levy revenue, claims costs and liability may also differ from forecast. Any variance will have a corresponding impact on the operating balance.

Fire Service Levy (New)

The Government has announced it will unify the Fire Services into Fire and Emergency New Zealand and signalled that this change will cost approximately $303 million which will be funded through a Crown contribution, a repayable capital loan and levy increases. The increase in levies required to meet the increased expenditure on Fire Services, and to contribute to repaying the repayable capital injection are uncertain and not yet included in the fiscal forecasts.

Revenue - Tax Policy Work Programme (Changed)

Some of the items on the tax policy work programme could each have a significant positive impact on operating revenue: work on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting including interest allocation rules and the taxation of foreign hybrid instruments and entities.

Services Funded by Third Parties (Unchanged)

A wide range of government services are funded through third party fees and charges. Demand for these services can vary with a direct effect on revenue received. There is a risk the Government may need to provide additional funding if revenue collected is lower than the total costs of providing the service. There is also a risk that changes will be required to the way government services are delivered, which could result in costs to the Crown.

Potential Policy Decisions Affecting Expenses (Expected to be Funded from Reprioritisation or the Budget Operating Allowance)

ACC - Work-related Gradual Process Disease and Infection (Unchanged)

Under current legislation, the Government incurs an obligation for Work-related Gradual Process Disease and Infection claims when the claim is made, and an expense is recognised at this point. The liability for commercial accident and sickness insurance contracts would usually be recognised when exposure to conditions that will give rise to a claim occurs. An amendment to legislation would be required to recognise claims at the same time as for commercial contracts. An initial adjustment to the liability and an expense of about $1.0 billion to $1.5 billion would need to be reported if such an amendment were to be enacted.

Budget Operating Initiatives (Unchanged)

Future Budgets may well include new operating initiatives for new policies or to address cost pressures other than those identified in other specific fiscal risks. Such new operating initiatives are risks to the fiscal forecasts only to the extent they cannot be managed through reprioritisation or from within the existing provision in the fiscal forecasts for forecast new operating spending. The Government's stated intention is that all new operating initiatives will be managed through these mechanisms.

Concessionary Loans (Unchanged)

The Crown has provided loans to local government and iwi-based organisations on a concessionary basis to achieve public policy purposes. Because of their concessionary nature, these loans are written down on draw down to reflect existing market conditions. There is a risk that future market conditions may require a different adjustment. The current carrying value of these loans on the Crown's balance sheet is $553 million.

Defence Force - Operating and Capital Costs (Changed)

A Defence White Paper is being developed to ensure the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) is structured and equipped to meet the Government's defence policy objectives out to 2030 and beyond. Changes to NZDF operating and/or capital funding may be made over the forecast period to achieve the Defence White Paper settings.

Fire Service Expenses (New)

The Government has announced it will unify the Fire Services into Fire and Emergency New Zealand, and signalled that this change will cost approximately $303 million which will be funded through a Crown contribution, a repayable capital loan and levy increases. While the Crown contribution has been included in the forecasts, the timing and quantum of any increases in Fire and Emergency New Zealand expenses are uncertain and not yet included in the fiscal forecasts. However, as any additional operating costs resulting from the restructure are assumed to be met largely by levy increases, the programme is not expected to have a significant impact on the operating balance.

Finance - Tamaki Regeneration Programme (Changed)

Proceeds from housing sales in Tamaki over the next 10 to 15 years may be less than the book value of the houses sold. Over this period 7,500 new houses are planned to be built in Tamaki in place of about 2,500 existing houses.

Greater Christchurch Regeneration- Christchurch Central Recovery Plan - Anchor Projects (Unchanged)

The Crown is partially funding the construction of Anchor Projects as part of the Christchurch Central Recovery Plan as set out in the cost-sharing agreement with the Christchurch City Council. Funding will vary from project to project, dependent on final scope, ownership decisions, implementation and project costs, and will to some extent eventually be recovered. Business cases are progressing through the decision-making process and construction costs will become increasingly clear during the business case process and the subsequent procurement phase. The Crown's contribution may differ from that included in the fiscal forecasts.

Revenue - Transformation and Technology Renewal (Unchanged)

The Business Transformation programme agreed by Cabinet is reflected in forecasts. There are risks that the expected implementation costs, revenue gains and operating costs savings may differ from forecasts. In addition, the Government is considering possible policy changes affecting the way Inland Revenue manages its processes and data. Any changes could materially impact the programme's cost, and the additional revenue collected.

Social Development - Child, Youth and Family Modernisation (Changed)

Following the report of an external advisory panel, work is continuing on development of a new operating model for Child, Youth and Family that sets out the structure, systems and resources needed to help improve the outcomes for vulnerable children and young people through a fundamental shift in its operating model. This includes an expanded focus and target group, and a move towards direct purchasing of some services. Funding for the modernisation package would be significant over the forecast period and future service design and costs are still being developed. To the extent that these cannot be funded from reprioritisation, additional funding is likely to be required.

Social Housing - Social Housing Reform (Changed)

The Government is progressing the Social Housing Reform Programme. This programme aims to improve the services and assistance provided to those in housing need, to build the social housing market and to fully recognise the costs of social housing. Specific fiscal risks associated with this programme are as follows:

  • Additional social-housing places may require funding above the current Income Related Rent Subsidy (IRRS) appropriation cap.
  • The development of a more diverse and competitive social-housing market may adversely affect HNZC's financial position.
  • Proceeds from social-housing transfers may differ from book value.

Social Development - Welfare Reform Forecast Benefit Savings (Unchanged)

A conservative estimate of the likely benefits from Welfare Reform has been included in the fiscal forecasts. The actual impact may differ owing to behavioural factors of benefit recipients and the complexity in implementing the reforms, with a corresponding impact on benefit expenditure.

State Sector Employment Agreements (Unchanged)

A number of large collective agreements are due to be renegotiated over the forecast period. As well as direct fiscal implications from any changes to remuneration, the renegotiation of these agreements can have flow-on effects to remuneration in other sectors. The Government has signalled an expectation of restraint given its current fiscal stance and that agreements will be managed within the current fiscal forecasts.

Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment - Tertiary Funding (New)

The Tertiary Education Commission is currently reviewing the recognition of tertiary funding in light of the recent transition to Public Benefit Entity accounting standards. While a number of outcomes are possible, one result may be a one-off non-cash adjustment to the operating statement in 2015/16 to reflect a change in the point at which expenditure is recognised. The amount is currently unknown but could reduce OBEGAL by between $200 million and $400 million. Any adjustment would have no impact on the amount of funding provided to tertiary institutions or the timing of any cash payments (and therefore net core Crown debt).

Treaty Negotiations - Government Response to Wai 262 (Unchanged)

The Waitangi Tribunal's report on the Wai 262 claim focuses on the protection of Māori culture and identity, with a particular focus on mātauranga Māori and associated taonga. The Tribunal's recommendations are directed towards a number of government agencies individually, as groups and across sectors. The Government has yet to respond to the Tribunal's report and recommendations.

Potential Capital Decisions (Expected to be Funded from the Existing Crown Balance Sheet or the Budget Capital Allowance)

Agency Capital Intentions (Unchanged)

Future Budgets may well include new capital investments other than those identified in other specific fiscal risks. Such investments are most likely to be developed by the 25 investment-intensive agencies that are required to identify their capital spending intentions over the next 10 years based on current policy settings and certain demographic and inflation assumptions. The Government expects that these intentions will be managed back through a range of measures such as prioritisation, improvements in asset performance, alternative methods of service delivery and changes to policy settings. To enable greater earlier visibility over agency capital intentions, the Treasury now regularly compiles investment pipeline reports that provide forward visibility of capital pressures at both an aggregate and individual investment level. New investments are risks to the fiscal forecasts only to the extent they cannot be managed through existing balance sheets, or the provision in the fiscal forecasts for forecast new capital spending.

Finance - Crown Overseas Properties (Unchanged)

The Government holds New Zealand House in London on a long-term lease from the Crown Estate (UK). Depending on the outcome of ongoing discussions with the Crown Estate an upgrade to the building may be required. Should a decision be taken to refurbish the property, a rough-order cost estimate for this upgrade is $100 million over the forecast period.

Parliamentary Service - Parliamentary Accommodation (Unchanged)

With the expiry of the lease on Bowen House in December 2018, the Parliamentary Service is reviewing how it provides accommodation for Parliament to ensure that accommodation meets the needs of future Parliaments at best economic value. Options for future accommodation may require capital expenditure.

Primary Industries - Investment in Water Infrastructure (Unchanged)

The Government has made a public statement that it will invest up to $400 million in equity of irrigation schemes. In addition to $120 million already appropriated, the Government will consider providing further capital of up to $280 million in future Budgets to Crown Irrigation Investment Limited as schemes reach the ‘investment-ready' stage.

Transport - Auckland Transport Projects (Unchanged)

The Government has signalled its intention to accelerate transport projects in the Auckland Council's Auckland Plan, including Auckland Manukau Eastern Transport Initiatives, the East-West Link and City Rail Link and support for a second Waitemata Harbour Crossing. NZTA has advised that it can fund the Auckland Manukau Eastern Transport Initiatives without further Crown funding. Decisions on further Crown financial assistance for the East-West Link and other projects will be made as part of future Budgets.

Transport - Regional State Highways (Changed)

A regional state highway acceleration package of $212 million was announced by the Government in June 2014. The entire $212 million package has now been allocated to tranche one projects ($97 million in Budget 2015) and tranche two projects ($115 million in Budget 2016). Investigation into tranche three is currently being undertaken, and if these projects proceed additional Crown funding may be required.

Transport - Support for KiwiRail (Unchanged)

The Government in Budgets 2010 to 2015 supported KiwiRail Holdings Limited (KiwiRail) with around $1.5 billion invested in the New Zealand freight rail system. A major review of the business occurred before Budget 2015 and $400 million was provided for 2015/16 and 2016/17. Further Crown investment into KiwiRail is likely to be required.

Unexpected Maintenance for Crown-owned Buildings (Changed)

There is a possibility that the Crown will incur costs when unexpected maintenance is required for the buildings it owns. For example, earthquake strengthening some of the buildings that not meet modern building standards, and maintenance for buildings with weathertight issues. The Government is currently undertaking a stock-take of Crown-owned earthquake-prone buildings. The likelihood, timing and fiscal impact of any repairs are uncertain.

Matters Dependent on External Factors

ACC - ACC Non-earners' Account (Unchanged)

The amount of funding provided by the Crown (and included in the fiscal forecasts) for the Non-earners' Account may be more or less than is required to cover the cost of claims. If factors such as claims experience, ACC performance and economic assumptions (particularly discount rates) turn out differently from what has been forecast, any such variance will have a corresponding fiscal impact.

Defence Force - Potential Rationalisation, Revaluation and Disposal of NZDF Assets (Unchanged)

The Government is considering the potential to dispose of a number of NZDF assets. Depending on market conditions, the timing of disposal and sale price received could have an impact on the Government's overall financial position. NZDF is also completing an analysis of inventory that is surplus to requirements and is over and above the existing provision for obsolescence. The existing provision is also being reviewed to ensure that all items comprising the provision are still relevant.

Energy and Resources - Crown Revenue from Petroleum Royalties (Unchanged)

The Crown Revenue from Petroleum Royalties is dependent upon extraction rates, the US dollar value per barrel and the US/NZ dollar exchange rate. Movements up or down in any of these variables could result in a significant decrease or increase in the Crown revenue. The overall impact for the Crown could be negative or positive.

Finance - Air New Zealand Sale of Virgin Australia Shareholding (New)

On 30 March 2016 Air New Zealand announced that it is exploring options with respect to its shareholding in Virgin Australia Holdings Limited, including a possible sale of all or part of its shareholding. Air New Zealand has not announced what it intends to do with the proceeds if it sells some or all of its shareholding. One possibility would be for Air New Zealand to use some of the sales proceeds to return capital to its shareholders, which includes the Crown. Whether any sale of Air New Zealand's shareholding in Virgin Australia Holdings Limited goes ahead, the timing of and proceeds from the sale, and following that the timing and size of any return of capital to Air New Zealand's shareholders are all unknown, and are decisions for the board and management of the company. However, if capital was returned to shareholders it would reduce Crown net debt.

Finance - EQC (Unchanged)

An actuarial estimate of the net claims liability and the rate of settlement has been included in the Crown's fiscal forecasts. There still remains some risk that EQC's remaining settlement expenditure relating to the Canterbury earthquakes will be different (higher or lower) from forecast. An obligation arises from Section 16 of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, which provides that the Crown will fund any deficiency in EQC’s assets to cover its financial liabilities on such terms and conditions that the Minister of Finance determines.

Finance - Goodwill on Acquisition (Unchanged)

As at 30 June 2015, the Government had goodwill on acquisition of a number of sub-entities totalling $592 million. Under New Zealand accounting standards (PBE IPSAS 26), such goodwill items are required to be assessed annually for impairment. If there is any indication that the goodwill may be impaired, the recoverable amount of the cash generating units to which the goodwill is allocated is required to be estimated. If the recoverable amount is less than the carrying amount of those units, the units and the goodwill allocated to them are regarded as impaired and the Government is required to recognise impairment losses in the operating statement. Such assessments will be conducted at the end of the financial year, and the fiscal forecasts currently make no allowance for such impairment losses.

Greater Christchurch Regeneration - Residential Red Zone (Unchanged)

Some recoveries from EQC and private insurers remain outstanding and there is a risk that final recoveries may be greater or less than forecast. In addition, potential costs, revenues or recoveries associated with the future use of residential red zone are uncertain. The future value may change depending on any future alternate uses of the land. The fiscal impact of this is not yet certain.

Housing New Zealand Corporation (HNZC) - Divestment and Development of HNZC Housing (Unchanged)

The forecasts reflect business-as-usual divestments and redevelopments of some housing property as part of HNZC's asset management strategy. Property sales are subject to market conditions and therefore there is an inherent level of uncertainty about the return to the Crown associated with forecast divestments and about the proposed funding of developments. Market conditions impact on the proceeds of sale and the cost of acquisitions and development. Given these uncertainties, there is a risk that there will be variations from the fiscal forecasts.

Pay Equity and Caregiver Employment Conditions (Unchanged)

Several cases and funding claims in the disability support and aged care sectors relating to interpretation of the Minimum Wage Act 1983, the Equal Pay Act 1972 and the Government's policy of paying certain family members through its Funded Care Policy may involve significant costs to the Crown. The Government has announced it will be entering negotiations over pay rates for care and support workers which will cover around 50,000 workers. A Joint Working Group has been established to develop principles for dealing with claims of pay equity under the Equal Pay Act. The group will recommend to Ministers agreed principles on pay equity that could be applied in all sectors in the economy. The result of both of these and of any related litigation could require additional funding.

Revenue - Cash Held in Tax Pools (Unchanged)

Funds held in tax pools are recognised as a Crown asset. There is a risk that funds held in these pools, over and above a taxpayer's provisional tax liability, may be withdrawn by that taxpayer, resulting in a reduction in the Crown's available cash reserves.

Revenue - Student Loans (Unchanged)

The value of student loans is sensitive to assumptions such as the borrower's future income, and general economic factors such as interest rates, unemployment levels, salary inflation and the CPI. As new lending occurs, an initial write-down to fair value will be made, and an expense will be incurred, reflecting the cost the Crown incurs in making an interest free loan and the risk that borrowers may not repay their loans. However, the assumptions made at the time of lending are volatile and are subject to change.

Treaty Negotiations - Relativity Clause (Unchanged)

The Deeds of Settlement negotiated with Waikato-Tainui and Ngāi Tahu include a relativity mechanism. Now that the total redress amount for all historical Treaty settlements exceeds $1.0 billion in 1994 present-value terms, the mechanism provides that the Crown is liable to make payments to maintain the real value of Ngāi Tahu's and Waikato-Tainui's settlements as a proportion of all Treaty Settlements. The agreed relativity proportions are 17% for Waikato-Tainui and approximately 16% for Ngāi Tahu. There is a risk that the timing and amount of the expense for the relativity payments may differ from that included in the fiscal forecasts. There is also uncertainty on how various disputes concerning the interpretation of the mechanism will be resolved.

Treaty Negotiations - Treaty Settlement Forecasts (Unchanged)

The fiscal forecasts include provision for the cost of future Treaty settlements. Given settlements are finalised through negotiations, there is a risk that the timing and amount of the settlements could be different from the profile included in the fiscal forecasts.

Risks Removed Since the 2015 Half Year Update

The following risks have been removed since the 2015 Half Year Update.

Expired risks Reason
Business, Science and Innovation - Communication - Ultra-fast Broadband Initiative Phase One No longer likely
Business, Science and Innovation - Communications - Impairment in Value of Broadband Investment No longer likely
Finance - Southern Response Earthquake Services Support No longer likely or material risk
Lands - Upgrading Land Online No longer a material risk, as Land Online will be funded through third party revenue
Revenue - Business Tax Simplification Risk materialised and reflected in forecasts
Revenue - Income-Sharing Tax Credits No longer likely
Social Development - Welfare Reform Costs No longer likely
Social Development - Youth Service Extension Funding approved through Budget 2016

Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities are possible costs that have arisen from past events, but the amount of the liability, or whether it will eventuate, will not be confirmed until a particular event occurs or present liabilities that are unable to be measured with sufficient reliability to be recorded in the financial statements (unquantifiable liabilities).

Typically, contingent liabilities consist of guarantees and indemnities, uncalled capital and legal disputes and claims. The contingent liabilities facing the Crown are a mixture of operating and balance sheet risks, and they can vary greatly in magnitude and likelihood of realisation.

In general, if a contingent liability were realised, or the amount becomes sufficiently reliable to record as a liability, it would reduce the operating balance and net worth and increase debt. In the case of contingencies for uncalled capital, the negative impact would be restricted to core Crown net debt because the cost would be offset by the acquisition of capital.

Where contingent liabilities have arisen as a consequence of legal action being taken against the Crown, the amount shown is the amount claimed and thus the maximum potential cost. It does not represent either an admission that the claim is valid or an estimation of the amount of any award against the Crown.

Contingent assets are possible assets that have arisen from past events but the amount of the asset, or whether it will eventuate, will not be confirmed until a particular event occurs.

Only contingent liabilities and contingent assets involving amounts of over $100 million are separately disclosed. Quantifiable contingencies less than $100 million are aggregated in the “other quantifiable” total.

Some contingencies of the Crown are not able to be quantified. We have disclosed all unquantifiable contingent liabilities and unquantifiable contingent assets that are not expected to be remote.[21]

The contingencies have been stated as at 31 March 2016, being the latest set of reported contingencies.

Notes

  • [21]“Remote” is defined as being an item with less than a 10% chance of occurring.

Quantifiable Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Contingent liabilities
  Status [22] 31 March 2016
($millions)

Guarantees and indemnities

   
New Zealand Export Credit Office guarantees Unchanged 213
Other guarantees and indemnities Unchanged 79
    292

Uncalled capital

   
Asian Development Bank Unchanged 3,156
International Monetary Fund - promissory notes Unchanged 2,281
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Unchanged 1,602
International Monetary Fund - arrangements to borrow Unchanged 575
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Changed 534
Other uncalled capital Unchanged 19
    8,167

Legal proceedings and disputes

   
Tax disputes Unchanged 149
Other legal proceedings and disputes Unchanged 71
    220

Other quantifiable contingent liabilities

   
Unclaimed monies Unchanged 133
Other quantifiable contingent liabilities Unchanged 279
    412
Total quantifiable contingent liabilities   9,091
Contingent assets
Legal proceedings and disputes Status 31 March 2016
($millions)
Tax disputes Unchanged 106
Other contingent assets Unchanged 70
Total quantifiable contingent assets   176

Notes

  • [22]Status of the nature of contingent liabilities or assets when compared to the Half Year Update published on 15 December 2015.

Unquantifiable Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

 
Contingent liabilities Status

Indemnities:

 
Air New Zealand Unchanged
Contact Energy Limited Unchanged
Earthquake Commission (EQC) Unchanged
Genesis Energy Limited Unchanged
Housing New Zealand Corporation Unchanged
Justices of the Peace, Community Magistrates and
Disputes Tribunal Referees
Unchanged
Maui Contracts Unchanged
Maui Partners Unchanged
New Zealand Aluminium Smelter and Comalco Unchanged
New Zealand Local Authorities Unchanged
New Zealand Railways Corporation Unchanged
Persons exercising investigating powers Unchanged
Synfuels-Waitara Outfall Indemnity Unchanged
Westpac New Zealand Limited Changed

Legal claims and proceedings:

 
Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) litigation Unchanged
Air New Zealand litigation Unchanged
Kiwibank Unchanged

Ministry for Primary Industries - Kiwifruit vine disease

Unchanged

Treaty of Waitangi claims Unchanged

Other unquantifiable contingent liabilities:

 
Criminal Proceeds (Recovery) Act 2009 Unchanged
Environmental liabilities Unchanged
Treaty of Waitangi claims - settlement relativity payments Unchanged

Description of Contingent Liabilities

Quantifiable contingent liabilities over $100 million

Guarantees and indemnities

Guarantees are legally binding promises made by the Crown to assume responsibility for a debt, or performance of an obligation of another party, should that party default. Guarantees generally relate to the payment of money but may require the performance of obligations. Guarantees given under section 65ZD of the Public Finance Act 1989 are disclosed in accordance with section 26Q(3)(b)(i)(B) of the same Act.

Indemnities are legally binding promises where the Crown undertakes to accept the risk of loss or damage that another party may suffer and to hold the other party harmless against loss caused by a specifically stated event(s).

New Zealand Export Credit Office guarantees

The New Zealand Export Credit Office (NZECO) provides a range of guarantee products to assist New Zealand exporters manage risk and capitalise on trade opportunities around the globe. The obligations to third parties are guaranteed by the Crown and are intended to extend the capacity of facilities in the private sector.

$213 million at 31 March 2016 ($177 million at 30 June 2015)

Uncalled capital

As part of the Crown's commitment to a multilateral approach to ensure global financial and economic stability, New Zealand, as a member country of these organisations, contributes capital by subscribing to shares in certain institutions.

The capital (when called) is typically used to raise additional funding for loans to other member countries or, in the case of the quota contributions, to directly finance lending to members. For New Zealand and other donor countries, capital contributions comprise both “paid in” capital and “callable capital or promissory notes”.

The Crown's uncalled capital subscriptions over $100 million are as follows:

 
Uncalled capital 31 March 2016
$millions
30 June 2015
$millions
Asian Development Bank 3,156 3,193
International Monetary Fund - promissory notes 2,281 1,337
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 1,602 1,625
International Monetary Fund - arrangements to borrow 575 1,164
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank[23] 534 -

In addition to the uncalled capital above, the Crown Support Deed agreed with Southern Response Earthquake Services Ltd includes two capital subscriptions:

  • a $500 million preference share facility under the Crown's agreement dated 5 April 2012 of which $393 million has already been called and paid, with the other $107 million called but unpaid as at 31 March 2016. The balance is forecast to be paid in the 2016/17 financial year, and
  • $500 million of uncalled ordinary shares under an amended Crown Support Deed dated 30 January 2013 by which Southern Response may issue a call notice but only after Southern Response's investments, reinsurance and existing Crown support (the remaining $107 million convertible preference share facility discussed above) are exhausted.

As at 31 March 2016, no payment has been made on the uncalled ordinary capital facility. However, it is now considered probable that this subscription will be called and paid for in the future. The extent to which the subscription is called and paid depends on the ultimate cost of settling earthquake claims, which continues to be subject to significant uncertainty.

The above capital subscriptions have an impact on the core Crown net debt; however as Southern Response is part of the Crown there would be no impact on the total Crown operating balance.

Legal proceedings and disputes

Tax disputes

When a taxpayer disagrees with an assessment issued following the dispute process, the taxpayer may challenge that decision by filing proceedings with the Taxation Review Authority or the High Court. This contingent liability represents the maximum liability IRD has in respect of these cases.

$149 million at 31 March 2016 ($148 million at 30 June 2015)

Other quantifiable contingent liabilities

Unclaimed monies

Under the Unclaimed Money Act 1971, entities (eg, financial institutions, insurance companies) hand over money not claimed after six years to IRD. The funds are repaid to the entitled owner on proof of identification.

$133 million at 31 March 2016 ($120 million at 30 June 2015)

Unquantifiable contingent liabilities

This part of the Statement provides details of those contingent liabilities of the Crown that are not quantified, excluding those that are considered remote, reported by the following categories:

  1. indemnities
  2. legal disputes, and
  3. other contingent liabilities.

Notes

  • [23]Classified as other quantifiable contingent liabilities in the Half Year Update.

a) Indemnities

A number of these indemnities are provided to organisations within the Crown's control. If these indemnities were to crystallise, the Crown would compensate the individual entity for the loss and there would likely be an adverse impact on core Crown expenses and core Crown net debt.

Party indemnified Instrument of indemnification Actions indemnified
Air New Zealand Deed of indemnity issued 24 September 2001 Claims arising from acts of war and terrorism that cannot be met from insurance, up to a limit of US$1 billion in respect of any one claim.
Contact Energy Limited The Crown and Contact Energy signed a number of documents to settle in full Contact's outstanding land rights and geothermal asset rights at Wairakei  The documents contained two reciprocal indemnities between the Crown and Contact to address the risk of certain losses to the respective parties' assets arising from the negligence or fault of the other party. 
Earthquake Commission (EQC) Section 16 of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993 As set out in the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Crown shall fund any deficiency in EQC's assets to cover its financial liabilities on such terms and conditions that the Minister of Finance determines. 
Genesis Energy Limited Deed between Genesis Power Limited and the Crown The agreement sees the Crown compensate Genesis in the event that Genesis has less gas than it requires for the long-term supply of gas to cover Huntly power station's minimum needs.
  Genesis acquisition of Tekapo A & B power stations Indemnity against any damage to bed of lakes and rivers subject to operating easements. 
Housing New Zealand Limited (HNZL) The Crown has provided a warranty in respect of title to the assets transferred to HNZL

The Crown indemnified HNZL against:

  • any breach of the warranty provided, and
  • any third party claims that are a result of acts or omissions prior to 1 November 1992.

The Crown also indemnified the directors and officers of HNZL against any liability consequent upon the assets not complying with statutory requirements, provided it is taking steps to rectify any non-compliance.

Justices of the Peace, Community Magistrates and Disputes Tribunal Referee

Section 11CE of the District Courts Act 1947

Section 4F of the Justices of the Peace Act 1957

Section 58 of the Disputes Tribunal Act 1988

Damages or costs awarded against them as a result of them exceeding their jurisdiction, provided a High Court Judge certifies that they have exceeded their jurisdiction in good faith and ought to be indemnified.
Maui Contracts Contracts in respect of which the Crown purchases gas from Maui Mining companies and sells gas downstream to Contact Energy Limited, Vector Gas Limited and Methanex Waitara Valley Limited The contracts provide for invoices to be re-opened in certain circumstances within two years of their issue date as a result of revisions to indices.  These revisions may result in the Crown refunding monies or receiving monies from those parties.
Maui Partners Confidentiality agreements with the Maui Partners in relation to the provision of gas reserves information Any losses arising from a breach of the deed.
New Zealand Aluminium Smelter and Comalco The Minister of Finance signed indemnities in November 2003 and February 2004 in respect of aluminium dross currently stored at another site in Invercargill The indemnity relates to costs incurred in removing the dross and disposing of it at another site if required to do so by an appropriate authority. 
New Zealand Local Authorities

Section 9 of the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002

Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan

The Guide to the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan (‘the Guide') states that, with the approval of the Minister, the Government will reimburse local authorities, in whole or in part, for certain types of response and recovery costs incurred as a result of a local or national emergency.  The Guide is approved and issued by the Director of Civil Defence Emergency Management.
New Zealand Rail Corporation The Minister of Finance signed the indemnity on 1 September 2004 The directors of NZ Railways Corporation against all liabilities in connection with the Corporation taking ownership and/or responsibility for the national rail network and any associated assets and liabilities.
  Section 10 of the Finance Act 1990 Guarantees all loan and swap obligations of the New Zealand Railways Corporation.
Persons exercising investigating powers Section 63 of the Corporations (Investigation and Management) Act 1989 Indemnifies the Financial Markets Authority (formerly Securities Commission), the Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Companies, members of advising committees within the Act, every statutory manager of a corporation, and persons appointed pursuant to sections 17 to 19 of the Act, in the exercise of investigating powers, unless the power has been exercised in bad faith.
Synfuels-Waitara Outfall Indemnity 1990 sale of the Synfuels plant and operations to New Zealand Liquid Fuels Investment Limited (NZLFI) The Crown transferred to NZLFI the benefit and obligation of a Deed of Indemnity between the Crown and Borthwick-CWS Limited (and subsequent owners) in respect of the Waitara effluent transfer line which was laid across the Waitara meat processing plant site.  The Crown has the benefit of a counter indemnity from NZLFI which has since been transferred to Methanex Motunui Limited.
Westpac New Zealand Limited The Crown Transactional Banking Services Agreement with Westpac New Zealand Limited dated 24 September 2015

The Crown has indemnified Westpac New Zealand Limited:

  • for all amounts paid by Westpac New Zealand under letters of credit issued on behalf of the Crown, and 
  • against certain cost, damages and losses to third parties resulting from:
    • unauthorised, forged or fraudulent payment instructions
    • unauthorised or incorrect direct debit instructions, or
    • cheques mistakenly drawn in favour of a third party rather than drawn in favour of the Crown.

b) Legal claims and proceedings

There are numerous legal actions that have been brought against the Crown. However, in the majority of these actions it is considered a remote possibility that the Crown would lose the case. Based on these factors, not all legal actions are individually disclosed. The claims that are disclosed individually, while they cannot be quantified, have the potential to exceed $20 million in costs and not considered to be remote.

Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) litigation

Litigation involving ACC arises almost exclusively from challenges to operational decisions made by ACC through the statutory review and appeal process. No accrual has been made for contingent liabilities which could arise as these disputes are issue based and ACC's active management of litigation means that it will be either settling or defending, depending on the merits of the issue in dispute.

Air New Zealand litigation

Air New Zealand is defending two class actions in the US. One makes allegations of anti-competitive conduct against many airlines in relation to pricing in the air cargo business. Following settlements, two airlines including Air New Zealand continue to defend the claim.

A second class action in the US alleges that Air New Zealand together with other airlines acted anti-competitively in respect of fares and surcharges on trans-Pacific routes. Continuation or termination of these proceedings awaits an appeal on a critical legal issue.

Allegations of anti-competitive conduct in the air cargo business in Hong Kong and Singapore were the subject of proceedings by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). Following a defended hearing, the Federal Court released its decision in October 2014, finding in favour of Air New Zealand. The ACCC won an appeal against that decision by a majority of two judges to one and Air New Zealand has applied to the High Court of Australia for further Leave to Appeal.

In the event that a Court determined that Air New Zealand had breached competition laws, the Group would have potential liability for damages or (in Australia) pecuniary penalties. No other significant contingent liability claims are outstanding at balance date.

Kiwibank

In June 2013, a group called Fair Play on Fees announced plans for a representative action against banks in New Zealand in relation to certain default fees charged to New Zealand customers. In November 2013, the group issued proceedings against Kiwibank. The potential outcome of the proceedings cannot be determined with any certainty at this stage.

Ministry for Primary Industries - Kiwifruit vine disease

In November 2014, 42 kiwifruit growers and one post-harvest operator filed a claim against the Ministry for Primary Industries alleging it is liable for damages they suffered from the kiwifruit vine disease Psa-V. The plaintiffs have not quantified their losses, but have publicly claimed they are in the vicinity of $370 million, citing total industry losses of $885 million. Although the plaintiffs were required to provide details of their claims by 4 December 2015, that information is incomplete and it is still not possible to provide a more accurate assessment of the contingent liability. It appears there are now 178 claimants, but that is not certain owing to several orchards being subject of claims by more than one entity. The Ministry is defending the claim and currently it remains unquantifiable.

Treaty of Waitangi claims

Under the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, any Māori may lodge certain claims relating to land or actions counter to the principles of the Treaty with the Waitangi Tribunal. Where the Tribunal finds a claim is well founded, it may recommend to the Crown that action be taken to compensate those affected. The Tribunal can make recommendations that are binding on the Crown with respect to land which has been transferred by the Crown to an SOE or a tertiary institution, or is subject to the Crown Forest Assets Act 1989.

c)  Other unquantifiable contingent liabilities

Criminal Proceeds (Recovery) Act 2009

The Ministry of Justice is responsible for administering the Criminal Proceeds (Recovery) Act 2009. The Act requires the Crown to give an undertaking as to damages or costs in relation to restraining orders. In the event that the Crown is found liable, payment may be required.

Environmental liabilities

Under common law and various statutes, the Crown may have responsibility to remedy adverse effects on the environment arising from Crown activities. Departments managing significant Crown properties have implemented systems to identify, monitor and assess potential contaminated sites.

In accordance with PBE IPSAS 19: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets any contaminated sites for which costs can be reliably measured have been included in the Statement of Financial Position as provisions.

Treaty of Waitangi claims - settlement relativity payments

The Deeds of Settlement negotiated with Waikato-Tainui and Ngāi Tahu include a relativity mechanism. Now that the total redress amount for all historical Treaty settlements exceeds $1.0 billion in 1994 present-value terms, the mechanism provides that the Crown is liable to make payments to maintain the real value of Ngāi Tahu’s and Waikato-Tainui’s settlements as a proportion of all Treaty settlements. The agreed relativity proportions are 17% for Waikato-Tainui and approximately 16% for Ngāi Tahu. There is a risk that the timing and amount of the expense for the relativity payments may differ from that included in the fiscal forecasts. There is also uncertainty on how various disputes concerning the interpretation of the mechanism will be resolved.

Description of Contingent Assets

Quantifiable contingent assets over $100 million

Legal proceedings and disputes

Tax disputes

A contingent asset is recognised when the IRD has advised a taxpayer of a proposed adjustment to their tax assessment. The taxpayer has the right to dispute this adjustment and a disputes resolution process can be entered into. The contingent asset is based on the likely cash collectable from the disputes process based on experience and similar prior cases, net of losses carried forward.

$106 million at 31 March 2016 ($103 million at 30 June 2015)

Forecast Financial Statements

These forecasts have been prepared in accordance with the Public Finance Act 1989.

They are based on the accounting policies and assumptions that follow. As with all such assumptions, there is a degree of uncertainty surrounding them. This uncertainty increases as the forecast horizon extends. The Risks and Scenarios and Specific Fiscal Risks chapters discuss the risks to the fiscal forecast in more detail.

The forecasts have been prepared in accordance with the Statement of Responsibility and reflect the judgements and information known at the time they were prepared. They reflect all government decisions and circumstances communicated to 29 April 2016.

The finalisation dates and key assumptions that underpin the preparation of the Forecast Financial Statements are outlined in the Fiscal Outlook chapter (pages 27 to 52).

Statement of Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies

The Forecast Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with the accounting policies that are expected to be used in the comparable audited actual Financial Statements of the Government. They comply with generally accepted accounting practice (GAAP) as required by the Public Finance Act 1989 and have been prepared in accordance with Public Benefit Entity Financial Reporting Standard 42: Prospective Financial Statements.

All forecasts use the accrual basis of accounting. Forecasts have been prepared for the consolidated Financial Statements of the Government reporting entity, which includes all entities controlled by the Government (as defined by applicable financial reporting standards).

The specific accounting policies are included within the 2016 Budget Economic and Fiscal Update Additional Information document which can be found on the Treasury's website at www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/forecasts/befu2016/094.htm

Forecast Policies

The Forecast Financial Statements have been prepared on the basis of the Treasury's best professional judgement. Actual financial results for the periods covered are likely to vary from the information presented in these forecasts. Factors that may lead to a material difference between information in these Forecast Financial Statements and the actual reported results in future years are set out in the Specific Fiscal Risks chapter on pages 67 to 90.

Key forecast assumptions are set out on pages 29 and 52.

Reporting and Forecast Period

The reporting periods for these Forecast Financial Statements are the years ended 30 June 2016 to 30 June 2020. The “2015 Actual” figures reported in the statements are the audited results reported in the Financial Statements of the Government for the year ended 30 June 2015. The “2016 Previous Budget” figures are the original forecasts to 30 June 2016 as presented in the 2015 Budget.

Government Reporting Entity as at 29 April 2016

These Forecast Financial Statements are for the government reporting entity as specified in Part 3 of the Public Finance Act 1989. This comprises Ministers of the Crown and the following entities (classified in the three institutional components used for segmental reporting):

Core Crown Segment

Departments

  • Crown Law Office
  • Department of Conservation
  • Department of Corrections
  • Department of Internal Affairs
  • Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
  • Education Review Office
  • Government Communications Security Bureau
  • Inland Revenue Department
  • Land Information New Zealand
  • Ministry for Culture and Heritage
  • Ministry for Primary Industries
  • Ministry for the Environment
  • Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
  • Ministry of Defence
  • Ministry of Education
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  • Ministry of Health
  • Ministry of Justice
  • Ministry of Māori Development
  • Ministry for Pacific Peoples
  • Ministry of Social Development
  • Ministry of Transport
  • Ministry for Women
  • New Zealand Customs Service
  • New Zealand Defence Force
  • New Zealand Police
  • New Zealand Security Intelligence Service
  • Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives
  • Parliamentary Counsel Office
  • Parliamentary Service
  • Serious Fraud Office
  • State Services Commission
  • Statistics New Zealand
  • The Treasury

Offices of Parliament

  • Controller and Auditor-General
  • Office of the Ombudsmen
  • Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment

Others

  • New Zealand Superannuation Fund
  • Reserve Bank of New Zealand

State-owned Enterprises Segment

  • Airways Corporation of New Zealand Limited
  • Animal Control Products Limited
  • AsureQuality Limited
  • Electricity Corporation of New Zealand Limited
  • Kiwirail Holdings Limited
  • Kordia Group Limited
  • Landcorp Farming Limited
  • Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited
  • New Zealand Post Limited
  • New Zealand Railways Corporation
  • Quotable Value Limited
  • Solid Energy New Zealand Limited
  • Transpower New Zealand Limited

Mixed ownership model companies (Public Finance Act schedule 5companies)

  • Genesis Energy Limited
  • Meridian Energy Limited
  • Mighty River Power Limited

Others

  • Air New Zealand Limited

Crown entities segment

  • Accident Compensation Corporation
  • Accreditation Council
  • Arts Council of New Zealand Toi Aotearoa
  • Broadcasting Commission
  • Broadcasting Standards Authority
  • Callaghan Innovation
  • Careers New Zealand
  • Children's Commissioner
  • Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand
  • Commerce Commission
  • Crown Irrigation Investments Limited
  • Crown Research Institutes (7)
  • District Health Boards (20)
  • Drug Free Sport New Zealand
  • Earthquake Commission
  • Education New Zealand
  • Electoral Commission
  • Electricity Authority
  • Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority
  • Environmental Protection Authority
  • External Reporting Board
  • Families Commission
  • Financial Markets Authority
  • Government Superannuation Fund Authority
  • Guardians of New Zealand Superannuation
  • Health and Disability Commissioner
  • Health Promotion Agency
  • Health Quality and Safety Commission
  • Health Research Council of New Zealand
  • Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga
  • Housing New Zealand Corporation
  • Human Rights Commission
  • Independent Police Conduct Authority
  • Law Commission
  • Maritime New Zealand
  • Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Board
  • New Zealand Antarctic Institute
  • New Zealand Artificial Limb Service
  • New Zealand Blood Service
  • New Zealand Film Commission
  • New Zealand Fire Service Commission
  • New Zealand Lotteries Commission
  • New Zealand Productivity Commission
  • New Zealand Qualifications Authority
  • New Zealand Symphony Orchestra
  • New Zealand Tourism Board
  • New Zealand Trade and Enterprise
  • New Zealand Transport Agency
  • New Zealand Venture Investment Fund Limited
  • New Zealand Walking Access Commission
  • Office of Film and Literature Classification
  • Pharmaceutical Management Agency
  • Privacy Commissioner
  • Public Trust
  • Radio New Zealand Limited
  • Real Estate Agents Authority
  • Retirement Commissioner
  • School Boards of Trustees (2,398)
  • Social Workers Registration Board
  • Sport and Recreation New Zealand
  • Takeovers Panel
  • Te Reo Whakapuaki Irirangi (Māori Broadcasting Funding Agency)
  • Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori (Māori Language Commission)
  • Television New Zealand Limited
  • Tertiary Education Commission
  • Tertiary Education institutions (29)
  • Transport Accident Investigation Commission
  • WorkSafe New Zealand

Organisations listed in schedule 4 of the Public Finance Act 1989

  • Agricultural and Marketing Research and Development Trust
  • Asia New Zealand Foundation
  • Fish and Game Councils (12)
  • Game Animal Council
  • Leadership Development Centre Trust
  • Māori Trustee
  • National Pacific Radio Trust
  • New Zealand Fish and Game Council
  • New Zealand Game Bird Habitat Trust Board
  • New Zealand Government Property Corporation
  • New Zealand Lottery Grants Board
  • Ngāi Tahu Ancillary Claims Trust
  • Pacific Co-operation Foundation
  • Pacific Island Business Development Trust
  • Reserves Boards (20)
  • Sentencing Council
  • Te Ariki Trust

Non-listed companies in which the Crown is majority or sole shareholder (Public Finance Act schedule 4A companies)

  • Crown Asset Management Limited
  • Crown Fibre Holdings Limited
  • Education Payroll Limited
  • Fairway Resolution Limited
  • Health Benefits Limited (ceased operating)
  • Ōtākaro Limited
  • Research and Education Advanced Network New Zealand Limited
  • Southern Response Earthquake Services Limited
  • Tāmaki Redevelopment Company Limited
  • The Network for Learning Limited

Legal entities created by Treaty of Waitangi settlement Acts (Public Finance Act schedule 6)

  • Te Urewera

Other

  • Regenerate Christchurch

Subsidiaries of SOEs, Crown entities and other government entities are consolidated by their parents and not listed separately in this table.

Forecast Statement of Financial Performance for the years ending 30 June

  Note 2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Revenue

               
Taxation revenue 1 66,055 68,098 68,931 71,221 74,911 79,428 83,500
Other sovereign revenue 1 4,953 4,606 4,637 4,593 4,783 5,015 5,151
Total Revenue Levied through the Crown's Sovereign Power   71,008 72,704 73,568 75,814 79,694 84,443 88,651
Sales of goods and services   16,866 17,253 16,866 17,259 17,870 18,208 18,509
Interest revenue and dividends 2 3,524 4,064 3,721 4,267 4,497 4,825 5,173
Other revenue   3,615 3,580 3,607 3,615 3,688 3,746 3,878
Total revenue earned through the Crown's operations   24,005 24,897 24,194 25,141 26,055 26,779 27,560
Total revenue (excluding gains)   95,013 97,601 97,762 100,955 105,749 111,222 116,211

Expenses

               
Transfer payments and subsidies 3 23,723 24,482 24,421 25,395 26,039 26,816 27,789
Personnel expenses 4 21,124 21,594 21,783 22,144 22,324 22,368 22,472
Depreciation and amortisation 5 4,842 4,904 4,875 5,200 5,352 5,505 5,602
Other operating expenses 6 35,910 37,689 37,303 38,666 38,633 38,474 38,648
Finance costs 7 4,563 4,687 4,472 4,566 4,812 4,806 4,863
Insurance expenses 8 4,110 4,348 4,335 4,239 4,412 4,818 5,098
Forecast new operating spending 9 305 2 534 1,847 3,382 4,876
Top-down expense adjustment 9 (1,025) (600) (1,025) (685) (510) (460)
Total expenses (excluding losses)   94,272 96,984 96,591 99,719 102,734 105,659 108,888
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses)   (327) (441) (503) (517) (560) (591) (642)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) (excluding minority interests)   414 176 668 719 2,455 4,972 6,681
Net gains/(losses) on financial instruments 10 6,196 2,560 1,041 2,111 2,273 2,434 2,640
Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments 11 (1,649) (45) (4,496) (54) (45) (83) (7)
Less minority interest share of net gains/losses   (218) (32) (62) (4) (11) (4) (4)
Total gains/(losses)   4,329 2,483 (3,517) 2,053 2,217 2,347 2,629
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures   1,028 331 284 286 285 287 289
Operating balance (excluding minority interests) 12 5,771 2,990 (2,565) 3,058 4,957 7,606 9,599

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Analysis of Expenses by Functional Classification for the years ending 30 June

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Total Crown expenses

             

By functional classification

             
Social security and welfare 28,231 29,231 29,036 30,120 30,633 31,718 32,911
GSF pension expenses 373 371 290 231 239 251 263
Health 14,696 15,103 15,156 15,567 15,585 15,588 15,626
Education 13,537 13,894 13,968 14,235 14,421 14,470 14,625
Core government services 3,898 4,385 4,236 4,874 4,751 4,534 4,510
Law and order 3,730 3,841 3,926 4,062 4,079 4,087 4,101
Defence 1,917 2,036 2,033 2,149 2,187 2,195 2,203
Transport and communications 9,279 9,437 9,435 9,641 9,800 9,978 10,063
Economic and industrial services 8,235 7,866 7,729 7,551 7,869 7,892 7,958
Heritage, culture and recreation 2,198 2,304 2,208 2,401 2,428 2,455 2,500
Primary services 1,740 1,896 1,908 1,961 1,886 1,926 1,928
Housing and community development 1,114 1,547 1,593 1,694 1,644 1,653 1,667
Environmental protection 616 569 687 719 772 772 792
Other 145 537 512 439 466 462 462
Finance costs 4,563 4,687 4,472 4,566 4,812 4,806 4,863
Forecast new operating spending 305 2 534 1,847 3,382 4,876
Top-down expense adjustment (1,025) (600) (1,025) (685) (510) (460)
Total Crown expenses excluding losses 94,272 96,984 96,591 99,719 102,734 105,659 108,888

Below is an analysis of core Crown expenses by functional classification. Core Crown expenses include expenses incurred by Ministers, Departments, Offices of Parliament, the NZS Fund and the Reserve Bank, but not Crown entities and SOEs.

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Core Crown expenses

             

By functional classification1

             
Social security and welfare 23,523 24,275 24,296 25,224 25,703 26,433 27,367
GSF pension expenses 358 355 272 212 220 232 243
Health 15,058 15,581 15,635 16,214 16,270 16,344 16,333
Education 12,879 13,134 13,215 13,478 13,661 13,705 13,861
Core government services 4,134 4,811 4,446 4,943 4,797 4,626 4,594
Law and order 3,515 3,582 3,691 3,811 3,840 3,796 3,808
Defence 1,961 2,087 2,047 2,177 2,215 2,223 2,231
Transport and communications 2,291 2,214 2,246 2,358 2,382 2,407 2,455
Economic and industrial services 2,228 2,262 2,134 2,493 2,461 2,461 2,504
Heritage, culture and recreation 778 808 794 855 849 838 884
Primary services 667 742 777 709 616 620 620
Housing and community development 320 582 583 568 526 520 508
Environmental protection 723 605 685 716 770 770 789
Other 145 537 512 439 466 462 462
Finance costs 3,783 3,676 3,647 3,682 3,781 3,738 3,743
Forecast new operating spending 305 2 534 1,847 3,382 4,876
Top-down expense adjustment -   (1,025) (600) (1,025) (685) (510) (460)
Total core Crown expenses excluding losses 72,363 74,531 74,382 77,388 79,719 82,047 84,818
  1. The classifications of the functions of the Government reflect current approved baselines. Forecast new operating spending is shown as a separate line item in the above analysis and will be allocated to functions of the Government once decisions are made in future Budgets.

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Statement of Comprehensive Revenue and Expense for the years ending 30 June

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Operating Balance (including minority interest) 6,316 3,463 (2,000) 3,579 5,528 8,201 10,245

Other comprehensive revenue and expense

             
Revaluation of physical assets 5,519 (259)
Net change in hedging instruments entered into for cash flow hedges (100) 10 (117) 22 10 7 9
Foreign currency translation differences for foreign operations 51 (112)
Valuation gains/(losses) on investments available for sale taken to reserves 44 10 (2) 9 9 10 11
Other movements (13) 6 (4) 13 16 22 28
Total other comprehensive revenue and expense 5,501 26 (494) 44 35 39 48
Total comprehensive revenue and expense 11,817 3,489 (2,494) 3,623 5,563 8,240 10,293

Attributable to:

             
 - minority interest 848 480 413 529 578 599 648
 - the Crown 10,969 3,009 (2,907) 3,094 4,985 7,641 9,645
Total comprehensive revenue and expense 11,817 3,489 (2,494) 3,623 5,563 8,240 10,293

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Statement of Changes in Net Worth for the years ending 30 June

 
  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Opening net worth 80,697 79,984 92,236 89,302 92,425 97,478 105,161
Operating balance (including minority interest) 6,316 3,463 (2,000) 3,579 5,528 8,201 10,245
Net revaluations 5,519 (259)
Transfers to/(from) reserves 30 (211) 40 34 35 34
(Gains)/losses transferred to the Statement of Financial Performance (56) 6 22 6 (1) 5 13
Other movements 38 (10) (46) (2) 2 (1) 1
Comprehensive income 11,817 3,489 (2,494) 3,623 5,563 8,240 10,293
Transactions with minority interest (278) (438) (440) (500) (510) (557) (583)
Closing net worth 92,236 83,035 89,302 92,425 97,478 105,161 114,871

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Statement of Cash Flows for the years ending 30 June

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Cash Flows from Operations

             

Cash was provided from

             
Taxation receipts 64,945 67,001 68,401 70,058 73,437 78,221 82,203
Other sovereign receipts 4,731 4,357 4,566 4,154 4,286 4,474 4,568
Sales of goods and services 17,232 17,352 17,130 17,327 17,921 18,298 18,590
Interest and dividend receipts 3,364 3,608 3,401 3,504 3,825 4,131 4,463
Other operating receipts 3,823 4,621 4,044 3,590 3,605 3,512 3,610
Total cash provided from operations 94,095 96,939 97,542 98,633 103,074 108,636 113,434

Cash was disbursed to

             
Transfer payments and subsidies 23,896 24,498 24,449 25,384 26,039 26,815 27,830
Personnel and operating payments 60,009 63,069 62,110 63,751 63,466 62,444 62,927
Interest payments 4,598 4,704 4,438 4,682 4,824 4,893 4,691
Forecast new operating spending 305 2 534 1,847 3,382 4,876
Top-down expense adjustment (1,025) (600) (1,025) (685) (510) (460)
Total cash disbursed to operations 88,503 91,551 90,399 93,326 95,491 97,024 99,864
Net cash flows from operations 5,592 5,388 7,143 5,307 7,583 11,612 13,570

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

             

Cash was provided from/(disbursed to)

             
Net (purchase)/sale of physical assets (6,177) (8,128) (6,884) (7,971) (6,465) (6,259) (6,139)
Net (purchase)/sale of shares and other securities (4,912) (788) (45) (3,881) 5,950 2,311 (3,626)
Net (purchase)/sale of intangible assets (631) (744) (703) (837) (684) (623) (586)
Net (issue)/repayment of advances (1,686) (1,645) (962) (1,504) (1,603) (1,505) (1,543)
Net acquisition of investments in associates 153 (75) 116 57 29 (16) 34
Forecast new capital spending (316) (31) (587) (737) (690) (907)
Top-down capital adjustment 280 100 625 50 50
Net cash flows from investing activities (13,253) (11,416) (8,409) (14,098) (3,510) (6,732) (12,717)
Net cash flows from operating and investing activities (7,661) (6,028) (1,266) (8,791) 4,073 4,880 853

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

             

Cash was provided from/(disbursed to)

             
Issues of circulating currency 372 164 564 175 180 185 191
Government share offer programme1 579
Net issue/(repayment) of government bonds2 1,548 6,685 6,564 7,893 (4,213) (4,805) (847)
Net issue/(repayment) of foreign-currency borrowings (2,321) (1,494) (419) (957) (1,170) 25
Net issue/(repayment) of other New Zealand dollar borrowings 7,077 965 (2,228) 2,360 2,681 1,455 1,719
Dividends paid to minority interests1 (478) (464) (492) (546) (522) (558) (586)
Net cash flows from financing activities 6,777 5,856 3,989 8,925 (3,044) (3,723) 502
Net movement in cash (884) (172) 2,723 134 1,029 1,157 1,355
Opening cash balance 11,888 13,209 11,982 15,036 15,168 16,196 17,352
Foreign-exchange gains/(losses) on opening cash 978 331 (2) (1) (1) (1)
Closing cash balance 11,982 13,037 15,036 15,168 16,196 17,352 18,706
  1. Excludes transactions with ACC and NZS Fund.
  2. Further information on the proceeds and repayments of government bonds is available in note 23.

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Statement of Cash Flows (continued) for the years ending 30 June

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Reconciliation Between the Net Cash Flows from Operations and the Operating Balance

             
Net Cash Flows from Operations 5,592 5,388 7,143 5,307 7,583 11,612 13,570

Items included in the operating balance but not in net cash flows from operations

             

Gains/(losses)

             
Net gains/(losses) on financial instruments 6,196 2,560 1,041 2,111 2,273 2,434 2,640
Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments (1,649) (45) (4,496) (54) (45) (83) (7)
Minority interest share of net gains/(losses) (218) (32) (62) (4) (11) (4) (4)
Total gains/(losses) 4,329 2,483 (3,517) 2,053 2,217 2,347 2,629

Other Non-cash Items in Operating Balance

             
Depreciation and amortisation (4,842) (4,904) (4,875) (5,200) (5,352) (5,505) (5,602)
Cost of concessionary lending (696) (773) (806) (842) (856) (842) (778)
Impairment on financial assets (excluding receivables) (305) (125) (82) (126) (129) (136) (138)
Decrease/(increase) in defined benefit retirement plan liabilities 373 370 445 505 505 497 491
Decrease/(increase) in insurance liabilities 746 705 170 44 (479) (1,197) (1,415)
Other 699 (109) (218) (229) (277) (303) (354)
Total other non-cash Items (4,025) (4,836) (5,366) (5,848) (6,588) (7,486) (7,796)

Movements in Working Capital

             
Increase/(decrease) in receivables 141 (278) (229) 188 118 645 760
Increase/(decrease) in accrued interest 196 445 286 879 685 781 538
Increase/(decrease) in inventories (105) 22 (16) (116) (7) (9) (2)
Increase/(decrease) in prepayments (12) (10) (3) (14) (10) 5 1
Decrease/(increase) in deferred revenue (149) (9) (18) 3 (16) (26) (14)
Decrease/(increase) in payables/provisions (196) (215) (845) 606 975 (263) (87)
Total movements in working capital (125) (45) (825) 1,546 1,745 1,133 1,196
Operating balance (excluding minority interests) 5,771 2,990 (2,565) 3,058 4,957 7,606 9,599

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June

  Note 2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Assets

               
Cash and cash equivalents 13 11,982 13,037 15,036 15,168 16,196 17,352 18,706
Receivables 13 17,602 17,468 16,946 17,484 17,652 18,350 19,165
Marketable securities, deposits and derivatives in gain 13 54,298 46,799 49,729 53,289 47,614 45,587 49,868
Share investments 13 25,408 25,921 25,443 26,617 27,975 29,437 30,985
Advances 13 26,497 28,669 27,504 28,779 30,151 31,455 32,808
Inventory   995 1,089 979 863 856 847 845
Other assets   2,389 2,165 2,346 2,301 2,302 2,302 2,315
Property, plant and equipment 15 124,558 123,577 127,001 131,100 133,468 135,282 136,794
Equity accounted investments1   11,918 11,126 12,172 12,451 12,731 13,005 13,275
Intangible assets and goodwill 16 3,056 3,264 3,306 3,643 3,772 3,834 3,829
Forecast for new capital spending 9 316 31 618 1,355 2,045 2,953
Top-down capital adjustment 9 (655) (100) (725) (725) (775) (825)
Total assets   278,703 272,776 280,393 291,588 293,347 298,721 310,718

Liabilities

               
Issued currency   5,336 5,640 5,900 6,074 6,254 6,440 6,630
Payables 18 11,953 12,232 12,088 12,282 11,922 12,638 13,248
Deferred revenue   2,112 2,012 2,130 2,127 2,143 2,169 2,183
Borrowings   112,580 113,377 113,009 121,698 118,767 115,123 115,901
Insurance liabilities 19 36,431 37,814 39,325 39,281 39,760 40,957 42,372
Retirement plan liabilities 20 10,834 12,190 11,287 10,782 10,277 9,780 9,289
Provisions 21 7,221 6,476 7,352 6,919 6,746 6,453 6,224
Total liabilities   186,467 189,741 191,091 199,163 195,869 193,560 195,847
Total assets less total liabilities   92,236 83,035 89,302 92,425 97,478 105,161 114,871

Net Worth

               
Taxpayers' funds   19,354 15,978 16,807 20,087 25,269 33,078 42,906
Property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve   67,107 61,873 66,831 66,623 66,414 66,233 66,032
Other reserves   (7) (39) (91) (69) (57) (44) (26)
Total net worth attributable to the Crown   86,454 77,812 83,547 86,641 91,626 99,267 108,912
Net worth attributable to minority interest   5,782 5,223 5,755 5,784 5,852 5,894 5,959
Total net worth 22 92,236 83,035 89,302 92,425 97,478 105,161 114,871
  1. Tertiary education institutions constitute most of the equity accounted investments.

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Forecast Statement of Borrowings as at 30 June

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Borrowings

             
Government bonds 58,743 64,149 64,045 71,308 66,662 61,339 60,175
Treasury bills 6,734 3,939 3,407 3,809 3,802 3,782 3,769
Government retail stock 188 179 190 190 190 190 190
Settlement deposits with Reserve Bank 7,931 7,311 7,657 7,657 7,657 7,657 7,657
Derivatives in loss 6,261 2,281 4,228 3,531 3,210 2,895 2,798
Finance lease liabilities 1,788 2,706 2,290 2,406 2,734 2,871 3,276
Other borrowings 30,935 32,812 31,192 32,797 34,512 36,389 38,036
Total borrowings 112,580 113,377 113,009 121,698 118,767 115,123 115,901
Sovereign-guaranteed debt 84,008 82,878 83,148 90,594 85,780 80,365 79,093
Non sovereign-guaranteed debt 28,572 30,499 29,861 31,104 32,987 34,758 36,808
Total borrowings 112,580 113,377 113,009 121,698 118,767 115,123 115,901

Net Debt:

             
Core Crown borrowings1 95,649 94,467 95,670 102,812 98,237 93,288 92,504
Add back NZS Fund holdings of sovereign-issued debt and NZS Fund borrowings (2,493) (1,280) (1,606) (1,651) (1,651) (1,652) (1,655)
Gross sovereign-issued debt2 93,156 93,187 94,064 101,161 96,586 91,636 90,849
Less core Crown financial assets3 76,434 73,929 74,843 80,236 75,947 75,301 80,746
Net core Crown debt 16,722 19,258 19,221 20,925 20,639 16,335 10,103
Add back core Crown advances 14,140 15,425 14,152 14,572 14,773 14,847 14,786
Net core Crown debt (incl. NZS Fund)4 30,862 34,683 33,373 35,497 35,412 31,182 24,889
Add back NZS Fund holdings of core Crown financial assets and NZS Fund financial assets5 29,769 30,914 28,899 30,837 32,896 35,096 37,460
Net core Crown debt (excl. NZS Fund and advances)6 60,631 65,597 62,272 66,334 68,308 66,278 62,349

Gross Debt:

             
Gross sovereign-issued debt2 93,156 93,187 94,064 101,161 96,586 91,636 90,849
Less Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills (8,631) (7,625) (8,881) (8,881) (8,881) (8,881) (8,881)
Add back changes to DMO borrowing owing to settlement cash7 1,600 1,600 1,600 1,600 1,600 1,600 1,600
Gross sovereign-issued debt excluding Reserve Bank settlement cash and Reserve Bank bills4 86,125 87,162 86,783 93,880 89,305 84,355 83,568

Notes on borrowings

Total borrowings can be split into sovereign-guaranteed and non-sovereign-guaranteed debt. This split reflects the fact that borrowings by SOEs and Crown entities are not explicitly guaranteed by the Crown. No debt of SOEs and Crown entities is currently guaranteed by the Crown.

  1. Core Crown borrowings in this instance include unsettled purchases of securities (classified as accounts payable in the Statement of Financial Position).
  2. Gross sovereign-issued debt (GSID) represents debt issued by the sovereign (the core Crown) and includes any government stock held by the other Crown reporting entities.
  3. Core Crown financial assets exclude receivables.
  4. Net core Crown debt represents GSID less financial assets. This can provide information about the sustainability of the Government's accounts, and is used by some international agencies when determining the creditworthiness of a country.
  5. Adding back the NZS Fund assets provides the financial liabilities less financial assets of the core Crown, excluding those assets set aside to meet part of the future cost of New Zealand Superannuation.
  6. Net core Crown debt (excluding NZS Fund and advances) excludes financial assets which are held for public policy rather than treasury management purposes.
  7. The Reserve Bank has used $1.6 billion of settlement cash to purchase reserves that were to have been funded by the NZDMO borrowing. Therefore, the impact of settlement cash on GSID is adjusted by this amount.

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Statement of Actual Commitments

  As at
31 Mar 2016
$m
As at
30 June 2015
$m

Capital Commitments

   
State highways 3,859 4,060
Land and buildings 2,134 1,122
Specialist military equipment 494 420
Other property, plant and equipment 2,887 2,958
Other capital commitments 660 694
Tertiary education institutions 480 480
Total capital commitments 10,514 9,734

Operating Commitments

   
Non-cancellable accommodation leases 3,176 3,088
Other non-cancellable leases 2,198 2,291
Tertiary education institutions 542 540
Total operating commitments 5,916 5,919
Total commitments 16,430 15,653

Total Commitments by Segment

   
Core Crown 5,317 4,453
Crown entities 7,028 7,231
State-owned Enterprises 4,813 4,887
Inter-segment eliminations (728) (918)
Total commitments 16,430 15,653

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Statement of Actual Contingent Liabilities and Assets

  As at
31 Mar 2016
$m
As at
30 June 2015
$m

Quantifiable Contingent Liabilities

   
Guarantees and indemnities 292 310
Uncalled capital 8,167 7,337
Legal proceedings and disputes 220 247
Other contingent liabilities 412 379
Total quantifiable contingent liabilities 9,091 8,273

Total Quantifiable Contingent Liabilities by Segment

   
Core Crown 8,876 8,025
Crown entities 90 30
State-owned Enterprises 125 218
Inter-segment eliminations
Total quantifiable contingent liabilities 9,091 8,273

Quantifiable Contingent Assets by Segment

   
Core Crown 144 160
Crown entities 4 3
State-owned Enterprises 28 75
Total quantifiable contingent assets 176 238

More information on contingent liabilities (quantified and unquantified) is outlined in the Specific Fiscal Risks chapter.

The accompanying notes and accounting policies are an integral part of these Statements.

Notes to the Forecast Financial Statements

NOTE 1: Sovereign Revenue (Accrual)
  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Taxation Revenue (accrual)

             

Individuals

             
Source deductions 25,309 26,364 26,578 27,778 28,835 30,256 31,795
Other persons 5,848 5,584 5,705 5,865 6,229 6,634 6,926
Refunds (1,595) (1,696) (1,698) (1,712) (1,717) (1,730) (1,796)
Fringe benefit tax 514 540 529 547 563 588 612
Total individuals 30,076 30,792 31,114 32,478 33,910 35,748 37,537

Corporate Tax

             
Gross companies tax 9,972 9,785 10,578 10,645 11,520 12,402 12,990
Refunds (143) (148) (240) (207) (214) (232) (246)
Non-resident withholding tax 470 506 624 504 550 639 711
Foreign-source dividend w/holding payments (3) 2 (9) 2 2 2 2
Total corporate tax 10,296 10,145 10,953 10,944 11,858 12,811 13,457

Other Direct Income Tax

             
Resident w/holding tax on interest income 1,830 2,094 1,791 1,629 1,701 2,172 2,897
Resident w/holding tax on dividend income 543 537 590 604 637 681 710
Total other direct income tax 2,373 2,631 2,381 2,233 2,338 2,853 3,607
Total direct income tax 42,745 43,568 44,448 45,655 48,106 51,412 54,601

Goods and Services Tax

             
Gross goods and services tax 28,123 30,242 28,969 29,855 31,938 33,571 34,640
Refunds (10,954) (11,949) (10,840) (10,801) (11,774) (12,380) (12,737)
Total goods and services tax 17,169 18,293 18,129 19,054 20,164 21,191 21,903

Other Indirect Taxation

             
Road user charges 1,283 1,339 1,345 1,361 1,418 1,479 1,529
Petroleum fuels excise – domestic production 1,018 1,074 1,168 1,176 1,180 1,185 1,187
Alcohol excise – domestic production 651 689 663 666 690 715 740
Tobacco excise – domestic production 310 309 377 345 352 365 379
Petroleum fuels excise – imports1 721 717 657 660 661 665 667
Alcohol excise – imports1 259 255 269 265 268 278 288
Tobacco excise – imports1 1,197 1,197 1,243 1,342 1,369 1,422 1,478
Other customs duty 214 160 127 175 175 175 175
Gaming duties 214 213 221 220 221 222 223
Motor vehicle fees 181 200 207 225 228 231 234
Approved issuer levy and cheque duty 57 47 44 46 49 58 66
Energy resources levies 36 37 33 31 30 30 30
Total other indirect taxation 6,141 6,237 6,354 6,512 6,641 6,825 6,996
Total indirect taxation 23,310 24,530 24,483 25,566 26,805 28,016 28,899
Total taxation revenue 66,055 68,098 68,931 71,221 74,911 79,428 83,500

Other Sovereign Revenue (accrual)

             
ACC levies 3,276 2,941 2,766 2,668 2,752 2,891 3,011
Fire Service levies 351 357 371 363 370 375 381
EQC levies 281 281 284 290 291 294 297
Child support and working for families penalties 283 278 275 274 276 282 289
Court fines 110 110 104 111 112 112 112
Other miscellaneous items 652 639 837 887 982 1,061 1,061
Total other sovereign revenue 4,953 4,606 4,637 4,593 4,783 5,015 5,151
Total sovereign revenue 71,008 72,704 73,568 75,814 79,694 84,443 88,651
  1. Customs excise-equivalent duty.
NOTE 1 (continued): Sovereign Receipts (Cash)
  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Taxation Receipts (cash)

             

Individuals

             
Source deductions 25,128 26,229 26,484 27,664 28,718 30,133 31,672
Other persons 6,044 5,823 6,010 6,196 6,616 6,915 7,134
Refunds (2,275) (2,273) (2,393) (2,438) (2,493) (2,478) (2,482)
Fringe benefit tax 498 538 528 546 562 587 611
Total individuals 29,395 30,317 30,629 31,968 33,403 35,157 36,935

Corporate Tax

             
Gross companies tax 10,484 9,956 11,507 10,739 11,325 12,607 13,151
Refunds (600) (561) (917) (613) (633) (682) (730)
Non-resident withholding tax 532 505 602 504 550 639 711
Foreign-source dividend w/holding payments (5) 2 (6) 2 2 2 2
Total corporate tax 10,411 9,902 11,186 10,632 11,244 12,566 13,134

Other Direct Income Tax

             
Resident w/holding tax on interest income 1,810 2,093 1,787 1,628 1,700 2,171 2,896
Resident w/holding tax on dividend income 542 537 590 604 637 681 710
Total other direct income tax 2,352 2,630 2,377 2,232 2,337 2,852 3,606
Total direct income tax 42,158 42,849 44,192 44,832 46,984 50,575 53,675

Goods and Services Tax

             
Gross goods and services tax 27,609 29,364 28,347 29,283 31,337 32,956 34,025
Refunds (10,900) (11,449) (10,590) (10,551) (11,524) (12,130) (12,487)
Total goods and services tax 16,709 17,915 17,757 18,732 19,813 20,826 21,538

Other Indirect Taxation

             
Road user charges 1,283 1,339 1,345 1,361 1,418 1,479 1,529
Petroleum fuels excise – domestic production 988 1,074 1,190 1,176 1,180 1,185 1,187
Alcohol excise – domestic production 652 689 663 666 690 715 740
Tobacco excise – domestic production 284 309 372 345 352 365 379
Customs duty 2,395 2,329 2,378 2,424 2,472 2,535 2,602
Gaming duties 214 213 221 220 221 222 223
Motor vehicle fees 173 200 207 225 228 231 234
Approved issuer levy and cheque duty 53 47 43 46 49 58 66
Energy resources levies 36 37 33 31 30 30 30
Total other indirect taxation 6,078 6,237 6,452 6,494 6,640 6,820 6,990
Total indirect taxation 22,787 24,152 24,209 25,226 26,453 27,646 28,528
Total taxation receipts 64,945 67,001 68,401 70,058 73,437 78,221 82,203

Other Sovereign Receipts (cash)

             
ACC levies 3,170 2,858 3,037 2,602 2,720 2,892 3,015
Fire Service levies 351 357 370 362 369 374 380
EQC levies 281 280 283 289 291 294 297
Child support and working for families penalties 208 216 212 212 213 218 222
Court fines 148 153 134 152 152 152 152
Other miscellaneous items 573 493 530 537 541 544 502
Total other sovereign receipts 4,731 4,357 4,566 4,154 4,286 4,474 4,568
Total sovereign receipts 69,676 71,358 72,967 74,212 77,723 82,695 86,771

NOTE 2: Interest Revenue and Dividends

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By type

             
Interest revenue 2,802 3,384 2,929 3,431 3,615 3,893 4,182
Dividends 722 680 792 836 882 932 991
Total interest revenue and dividends 3,524 4,064 3,721 4,267 4,497 4,825 5,173

By source

             
Core Crown 2,452 2,589 2,404 3,254 2,989 3,242 3,486
Crown entities 1,429 1,481 1,470 1,411 1,430 1,475 1,528
State-owned Enterprises 1,043 1,300 1,061 1,114 1,267 1,347 1,449
Inter-segment eliminations (1,400) (1,306) (1,214) (1,512) (1,189) (1,239) (1,290)
Total interest revenue and dividends 3,524 4,064 3,721 4,267 4,497 4,825 5,173

NOTE 3: Transfer Payments and Subsidies

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
New Zealand superannuation 11,591 12,256 12,261 12,912 13,473 14,161 14,916
Jobseeker support and emergency benefit 1,684 1,616 1,674 1,677 1,614 1,577 1,571
Supported living payment 1,515 1,519 1,524 1,515 1,493 1,509 1,529
Sole parent support 1,186 1,187 1,151 1,199 1,189 1,190 1,195
Family tax credit 1,854 1,837 1,824 1,797 1,790 1,772 1,831
Other working for families tax credits 549 577 568 645 639 633 639
Accommodation assistance 1,129 1,137 1,135 1,149 1,169 1,179 1,184
Income related rents 703 774 766 827 904 979 1,050
Disability assistance 377 379 377 376 378 379 382
Student allowances 511 529 496 510 540 542 547
Other social assistance benefits 1,255 1,409 1,414 1,458 1,486 1,508 1,519
Total social assistance grants 22,354 23,220 23,190 24,065 24,675 25,429 26,363

Subsidies

             
KiwiSaver 856 720 701 738 769 801 840

Other transfer payments

             
Official development assistance 513 542 530 592 595 586 586
Total transfer payments and subsidies 23,723 24,482 24,421 25,395 26,039 26,816 27,789

NOTE 4: Personnel Expenses

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By source

             
Core Crown 6,552 6,739 6,683 6,899 6,935 6,916 6,894
Crown entities 11,660 11,964 12,185 12,413 12,522 12,504 12,559
State-owned Enterprises 2,935 2,908 2,937 2,855 2,890 2,971 3,042
Inter-segment eliminations (23) (17) (22) (23) (23) (23) (23)
Total personnel expenses 21,124 21,594 21,783 22,144 22,324 22,368 22,472

NOTE 5: Depreciation and Amortisation

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By source

             
Core Crown 1,441 1,536 1,532 1,586 1,669 1,744 1,804
Crown entities 1,751 1,743 1,780 1,929 1,929 1,985 2,027
State-owned Enterprises 1,650 1,625 1,563 1,685 1,754 1,776 1,771
Inter-segment eliminations
Total depreciation and amortisation 4,842 4,904 4,875 5,200 5,352 5,505 5,602

NOTE 6: Other Operating Expenses

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By source

             
Core Crown 36,858 38,815 38,696 40,316 40,132 39,956 40,171
Crown entities 17,914 18,471 18,534 19,023 19,043 19,018 19,044
State-owned Enterprises 9,333 9,396 9,061 9,332 9,722 9,881 9,971
Inter-segment eliminations (28,195) (28,993) (28,988) (30,005) (30,264) (30,381) (30,538)
Total other operating expenses 35,910 37,689 37,303 38,666 38,633 38,474 38,648

NOTE 7: Finance Costs

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By type

             
Interest on financial liabilities 4,522 4,630 4,453 4,502 4,746 4,749 4,825
Interest unwind on provisions 41 57 19 64 66 57 38
Total finance costs 4,563 4,687 4,472 4,566 4,812 4,806 4,863

By source

             
Core Crown 3,783 3,676 3,647 3,682 3,781 3,738 3,743
Crown entities 221 216 176 209 204 207 207
State-owned Enterprises 1,280 1,520 1,246 1,276 1,381 1,420 1,505
Inter-segment eliminations (721) (725) (597) (601) (554) (559) (592)
Total finance costs 4,563 4,687 4,472 4,566 4,812 4,806 4,863

NOTE 8: Insurance Expenses

 
  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By entity

             
ACC 4,104 4,329 4,079 4,251 4,288 4,620 4,884
EQC (357) 57 128 34 141 195 204
Southern Response 335 (49) 117 (56) (27) (8)
Other (incl. inter-segment eliminations) 28 11 11 10 10 11 10
Total insurance expenses 4,110 4,348 4,335 4,239 4,412 4,818 5,098

NOTE 9: Forecast New Spending and Top-down Expense Adjustment

  2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Forecast New Operating Spending          
Unallocated contingencies 2 534 431 491 514
Forecast new spending for Budget 2017 1,416 1,391 1,362
Forecast new spending for Budget 2018 1,500 1,500
Forecast new spending for Budget 2019 1,500
Total forecast new operating spending 2 534 1,847 3,382 4,876
Operating top-down adjustment (600) (1,025) (685) (510) (460)

Unallocated contingencies represent expenses included in Budget 2016 and previous Budgets that have yet to be allocated. Forecast new spending indicates the expected spending increases from future Budgets.

The forecast for new operating spending for Budget 2017 is $1.5 billion. Some of this allowance has been pre-committed as at the forecast finalisation date of 29 April 2016, with only the unallocated portion of the allowance included in this note.

  2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Post-2020
Forecast
$m
Total
Forecast
$m

Forecast New Capital Spending (annual)

             
Unallocated contingencies 31 487 337 40 7 902
Forecast new spending for Budget 2017 100 300 250 250 900
Forecast new spending for Budget 2018 100 300 250 250 900
Forecast new spending for Budget 2019 100 300 500 900
Forecast new spending for Budget 2020 100 800 900
Total forecast new capital spending 31 587 737 690 907 1,550 4,502
Forecast new capital spending (cumulative) 31 618 1,355 2,045 2,953    
Capital top-down adjustment (cumulative) (100) (725) (725) (775) (825)    

Unallocated contingencies represent capital spending from Budget 2016 and previous Budgets that has yet to be allocated. Forecast new spending indicates the expected capital spending increases from future Budgets.

NOTE 10: Net Gains and Losses on Financial Instruments

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By source

             
Core Crown 4,389 2,344 (53) 1,971 2,076 2,237 2,423
Crown entities 2,752 316 1,125 294 338 384 426
State-owned Enterprises (63) 123 182 30 44 15 14
Inter-segment eliminations (882) (223) (213) (184) (185) (202) (223)
Net gains/(losses) on financial instruments 6,196 2,560 1,041 2,111 2,273 2,434 2,640

NOTE 11: Net Gains and Losses on Non-Financial Instruments

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By type

             
Actuarial gains/(losses) on GSF liability (322) (898)
Actuarial gains/(losses) on ACC outstanding claims (1,352) (3,065)
Other 25 (45) (533) (54) (45) (83) (7)
Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments (1,649) (45) (4,496) (54) (45) (83) (7)

By source

             
Core Crown (719) (1) (1,431) (3) (1) (1) (1)
Crown entities (1,335) (45) (3,096) (51) (44) (82) (6)
State-owned Enterprises 405 1 31
Inter-segment eliminations
Net gains/(losses) on non-financial instruments (1,649) (45) (4,496) (54) (45) (83) (7)

NOTE 12: Operating Balance (excluding Minority Interests)

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
By source              
Core Crown 3,879 2,406 (437) 3,217 4,548 7,308 9,110
Crown entities 2,786 585 (2,111) 178 351 312 452
State-owned Enterprises 689 800 873 767 848 878 975
Inter-segment eliminations (1,583) (801) (890) (1,104) (790) (892) (938)
Total operating balance 5,771 2,990 (2,565) 3,058 4,957 7,606 9,599

NOTE 13: Financial Assets (including receivables)

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Cash and cash equivalents 11,982 13,037 15,036 15,168 16,196 17,352 18,706
Tax receivables 8,957 9,290 9,040 9,263 9,688 10,222 10,727
Trade and other receivables 8,645 8,178 7,906 8,221 7,964 8,128 8,438
Student loans (refer note 14) 8,864 9,171 9,097 9,260 9,395 9,463 9,508
Kiwibank mortgages 15,598 17,446 16,640 17,753 18,959 20,208 21,507
Long-term deposits 5,214 2,848 5,053 4,875 4,789 4,716 4,678
IMF financial assets 2,299 2,525 2,287 2,299 2,318 2,338 2,358
Other advances 2,035 2,052 1,767 1,766 1,797 1,784 1,793
Share investments 25,408 25,921 25,443 26,617 27,975 29,437 30,985
Derivatives in gain 3,015 2,950 3,209 2,758 2,764 2,784 2,853
Other marketable securities 43,770 38,476 39,180 43,357 37,743 35,749 39,979
Total financial assets (including receivables) 135,787 131,894 134,658 141,337 139,588 142,181 151,532
Financial Assets by Entity              
NZDMO 19,481 17,907 20,424 23,832 17,207 14,149 16,566
Reserve Bank of New Zealand 22,905 20,683 21,241 21,487 20,934 21,327 21,534
NZS Fund 31,274 32,038 30,514 32,759 34,864 37,118 39,533
Other core Crown 22,907 22,909 22,731 22,311 22,656 23,198 23,885
Intra-segment eliminations (7,812) (7,648) (7,764) (7,575) (6,673) (6,825) (6,517)
Total core Crown segment 88,755 85,889 87,146 92,814 88,988 88,967 95,001
ACC portfolio 35,765 36,131 37,119 38,067 39,263 40,527 41,849
EQC portfolio 2,485 71 1,614 670 230 197 236
Other Crown entities 10,311 7,923 8,938 8,404 7,978 8,017 8,131
Intra-segment eliminations (3,305) (2,222) (2,403) (2,246) (2,162) (2,049) (1,861)
Total Crown entities segment 45,256 41,903 45,268 44,895 45,309 46,692 48,355
Total state-owned enterprises segment 22,588 25,140 23,706 24,167 25,983 27,747 29,837
Inter-segment eliminations (20,812) (21,038) (21,462) (20,539) (20,692) (21,225) (21,661)
Total financial assets (including receivables) 135,787 131,894 134,658 141,337 139,588 142,181 151,532

NOTE 14: Student Loans

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Nominal value (including accrued interest) 14,837 15,375 15,287 15,709 16,108 16,441 16,762
Opening book value 8,716 8,878 8,864 9,097 9,260 9,395 9,463
Amount borrowed in current year 1,518 1,583 1,539 1,580 1,614 1,619 1,646
Less initial write-down to fair value (602) (646) (670) (689) (703) (706) (717)
Repayments made during the year (1,114) (1,161) (1,191) (1,247) (1,303) (1,378) (1,419)
Interest unwind 604 605 594 608 617 622 625
Impairment (269) (100) (49) (100) (100) (100) (100)
Other movements 11 12 10 11 10 11 10
Closing book value 8,864 9,171 9,097 9,260 9,395 9,463 9,508

NOTE 15: Property, Plant and Equipment

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Net Carrying Value1

             

By class of asset

             
Land 39,912 37,240 40,006 40,046 39,955 39,768 39,684
Buildings 28,914 30,198 29,694 31,070 31,785 32,278 32,414
State highways 21,034 22,419 22,201 23,686 25,004 26,268 27,325
Electricity generation assets 14,739 13,413 14,570 14,398 14,191 13,986 13,764
Electricity distribution network (cost) 4,107 4,242 4,109 4,313 4,404 4,482 4,538
Specialist military equipment 3,080 3,109 3,025 3,319 3,193 3,107 3,082
Specified cultural and heritage assets 3,004 3,018 2,997 3,007 3,018 3,030 3,041
Aircraft (excluding military) 3,272 3,593 4,125 4,744 5,316 5,833 6,400
Rail network 983 1,367 1,083 1,194 1,244 1,330 1,418
Other plant and equipment (cost) 5,513 4,978 5,191 5,323 5,358 5,200 5,128
Total property, plant and equipment 124,558 123,577 127,001 131,100 133,468 135,282 136,794

By source

             
Core Crown 32,289 33,292 32,995 34,734 35,409 35,721 35,680
Crown entities 61,417 60,902 62,967 64,898 66,446 67,827 69,218
State-owned Enterprises 30,852 29,383 31,039 31,468 31,613 31,734 31,896
Inter-segment eliminations    -     -     -     -     -     -     - 
Total property, plant and equipment 124,558 123,577 127,001 131,100 133,468 135,282 136,794

Land breakdown by usage

             
Housing 12,976 11,089 13,158 13,066 12,985 12,804 12,674
State highway corridor land 9,307 8,881 9,343 9,343 9,343 9,343 9,343
Conservation land 5,521 5,368 5,504 5,515 5,526 5,536 5,547
Rail network 3,360 3,214 3,340 3,316 3,285 3,277 3,275
Schools 3,420 3,228 3,423 3,433 3,428 3,428 3,428
Commercial (SOEs) excluding Rail 1,365 1,364 1,637 1,675 1,722 1,745 1,767
Other 3,963 4,096 3,601 3,698 3,666 3,635 3,650
Total land 39,912 37,240 40,006 40,046 39,955 39,768 39,684
  1. Using a revaluation methodology unless otherwise stated.

NOTE 15: Property, Plant and Equipment (continued)

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Schedule of Movements

             

Cost or Valuation

             
Opening balance 129,449 137,593 138,681 145,209 152,802 159,697 166,134
Additions (refer below) 7,229 9,247 7,550 9,421 7,809 7,383 6,870
Disposals (1,211) (912) (650) (1,722) (870) (896) (608)
Net revaluations 3,064    -  (205)    -     -     -     - 
Other1 150 2 (167) (106) (44) (50) (36)
Total cost or valuation 138,681 145,930 145,209 152,802 159,697 166,134 172,360

Accumulated Depreciation and Impairment

             
Opening balance 13,143 18,161 14,123 18,208 21,702 26,229 30,852
Eliminated on disposal (655) (55) (124) (962) (92) (128) (111)
Eliminated on revaluation (2,159)    -     -     -     -     -     - 
Impairment losses charged to operating balance 78    -     -     -     -     -     - 
Depreciation expense 3,873 4,253 4,234 4,456 4,622 4,755 4,828
Other1 (157) (6) (25)    -  (3) (4) (3)
Total accumulated depreciation and impairment 14,123 22,353 18,208 21,702 26,229 30,852 35,566
Total property, plant and equipment 124,558 123,577 127,001 131,100 133,468 135,282 136,794

Additions - by functional classification

             
Transport and communications 3,364 3,834 3,411 3,491 3,234 3,240 3,033
Economic and industrial services 618 610 328 794 544 536 510
Education 893 1,162 1,132 1,208 1,171 1,177 849
Health 502 701 563 791 688 475 427
Defence 523 441 401 808 401 425 499
Other 1,329 2,499 1,715 2,329 1,771 1,530 1,552
Total additions to property, plant and equipment2 7,229 9,247 7,550 9,421 7,809 7,383 6,870
  1. Other mainly includes transfers to/from other asset categories.
  2. These additions do not include any purchases which may result from the allocation of the forecast for new capital spending (separately disclosed in the Statement of Financial Position).

NOTE 16: Intangible Assets and Goodwill

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By type

             
Goodwill 591 589 600 600 600 600 600
Other intangible assets 2,465 2,675 2,706 3,043 3,172 3,234 3,229
Total intangible assets and goodwill 3,056 3,264 3,306 3,643 3,772 3,834 3,829

By source

             
Core Crown 1,239 1,436 1,388 1,601 1,688 1,735 1,730
Crown entities 607 657 596 690 727 727 715
State-owned Enterprises 1,210 1,171 1,322 1,352 1,357 1,372 1,384
Inter-segment eliminations    -     -     -     -     -     -     - 
Total intangible assets and goodwill 3,056 3,264 3,306 3,643 3,772 3,834 3,829

NOTE 17: NZ Superannuation Fund

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Revenue 760 714 737 800 863 930 1,001
Less current tax expense 46 616 128 610 654 701 752
Less other expenses 198 168 546 170 186 200 213
Add gains/(losses) 3,156 2,025 (573) 1,927 2,057 2,198 2,348
Operating balance 3,672 1,955 (510) 1,947 2,080 2,227 2,384
Opening net worth 25,809 29,190 29,522 29,042 31,006 33,108 35,360
Operating balance 3,672 1,955 (510) 1,947 2,080 2,227 2,384
Other movements in reserves 41 20 30 17 22 25 29
Closing net worth 29,522 31,165 29,042 31,006 33,108 35,360 37,773
Comprising:              
Financial assets 31,274 32,038 30,514 32,759 34,864 37,118 39,533
Financial liabilities (3,145) (2,095) (2,479) (2,827) (2,890) (2,954) (3,022)
Net other assets 1,393 1,222 1,007 1,074 1,134 1,196 1,262
Closing net worth 29,522 31,165 29,042 31,006 33,108 35,360 37,773

NOTE 18: Payables

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By type

             
Accounts payable 7,599 7,445 7,325 7,409 7,034 7,340 7,667
Taxes repayable 4,354 4,787 4,763 4,873 4,888 5,298 5,581
Total payables 11,953 12,232 12,088 12,282 11,922 12,638 13,248

By source

             
Core Crown 8,131 8,621 8,544 8,804 8,537 9,145 9,584
Crown entities 5,670 4,865 4,981 4,902 4,686 4,690 4,933
State-owned Enterprises 4,953 5,057 4,964 5,020 5,136 5,217 5,250
Inter-segment eliminations (6,801) (6,311) (6,401) (6,444) (6,437) (6,414) (6,519)
Total payables 11,953 12,232 12,088 12,282 11,922 12,638 13,248

NOTE 19: Insurance Liabilities

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

By entity

             
ACC 32,518 36,842 36,976 38,250 39,437 40,726 42,137
EQC 2,965 262 1,908 750 225 158 159
Southern Response 1,216 645 710 215 29
Other (incl. inter-segment eliminations) (268) 65 (269) 66 69 73 76
Total insurance liabilities 36,431 37,814 39,325 39,281 39,760 40,957 42,372

ACC liability

Calculation information

PwC NZ has prepared an independent actuarial estimate of the ACC outstanding claims liability as at 31 December 2015. This estimate includes the expected future payments relating to accidents that occurred prior to balance date (whether or not the associated claims have been reported to, or accepted by, ACC) and also the expected future administrative expenses of managing these claims. The assumptions underpinning this valuation form the basis of the five-year forecast of the outstanding claims liability.

The key economic variables that impact on changes to the valuation are the long-term Labour Cost Index (LCI), average weekly earnings and the discount rate. Discount rates were derived from the yield curve for New Zealand Government bonds. For these forecast statements, the claims liability has been updated for the latest discount rates as at 31 March 2016. The equivalent single effective discount rate, taking into account ACC's projected future cash flow patterns, is 3.78% and allows for a long-term discount rate of 5.5% from 2061.

Other key variables in each valuation are the forecast increases in claim costs over and above the economic variables above, and the assumed rate at which long-term claimants will leave the scheme over the period. This assessment is largely based on scheme history.

Presentation approach

ACC has available to it a portfolio of assets that offset the claims liability. The assets below (less cross-holdings of NZ Government stock) are included as assets in the Statement of Financial Position.

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Gross ACC Liability

             
Opening gross liability 29,948 35,307 32,518 36,976 38,250 39,437 40,726
Net change 2,570 1,535 4,458 1,274 1,187 1,289 1,411
Closing gross liability 32,518 36,842 36,976 38,250 39,437 40,726 42,137

Less Net Assets Available to ACC

             
Opening net asset value 29,840 34,297 34,021 36,375 37,514 38,743 40,021
Net change 4,181 1,620 2,354 1,139 1,229 1,278 1,328
Closing net asset value 34,021 35,917 36,375 37,514 38,743 40,021 41,349

Net ACC Reserves (Net Liability)

             
Opening reserves position (108) (1,010) 1,503 (601) (736) (694) (705)
Net change 1,611 85 (2,104) (135) 42 (11) (83)
Closing reserves position (net liability)/net asset 1,503 (925) (601) (736) (694) (705) (788)

EQC liability

Calculation information

Melville Jessup Weaver prepared an independent actuarial estimate of the EQC outstanding claims liability at 31 December 2015 by estimating the projected ultimate claims costs then deducting the payments made in relation to those claims on or before that date. Each component of the claims liability was split into separate groups depending upon the Canterbury earthquake event grouping or other "business as usual" claims. These event groups were further split into sub-claim valuation groups being land claims, building claims or contents claims. The assumptions underpinning the 31 December 2015 valuation form the basis of the five-year forecast of the outstanding claims liability.

Critical assumptions used in projecting the ultimate costs include apportionment of costs across earthquake events, the profile of claims settlement, claims inflation rate per annum, risk margins and claims handling costs.

There is a high level of uncertainty associated with the valuation of the outstanding claims liability, reinsurance recoveries and unexpired risk liability. Some of the key uncertainties are: a complex land claims environment, complexity of the remaining dwelling claims and the expectation that some claims will need to be reopened to rectify outstanding issues.

The actual claims outcome may differ from the one currently forecast.

Presentation approach

EQC reinsurance recoveries are included in receivables in the Statement of Financial Position.

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

EQC Liability

             
Opening gross liability 4,747 2,288 2,965 1,908 750 225 158
Net change (1,782) (2,026) (1,057) (1,158) (525) (67) 1
Closing gross liability 2,965 262 1,908 750 225 158 159

Less Reinsurance Receivable

             
Opening reinsurance receivable 1,225 664 962 390 145 18
Net change (263) (647) (572) (245) (127) (18)
Closing reinsurance receivable 962 17 390 145 18

Net EQC Liability

             
Opening net position (3,522) (1,624) (2,003) (1,518) (605) (207) (158)
Net change 1,519 1,379 485 913 398 49 (1)
Closing net position (net liability) (2,003) (245) (1,518) (605) (207) (158) (159)

NOTE 20: Retirement Plan Liabilities

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Government Superannuation Fund 10,845 12,192 11,297 10,792 10,287 9,790 9,300
Other funds (11) (2) (10) (10) (10) (10) (11)
Total retirement plan liabilities 10,834 12,190 11,287 10,782 10,277 9,780 9,289

The net liability of the Government Superannuation Fund (GSF) was calculated by GSF's actuary as at 31 January 2016. The liability arises from closed schemes for past and present public sector employees as set out in the Government Superannuation Fund Act 1956. A Projected Unit Credit method was used to calculate the liability as at 31 January 2016, based on membership data as at 30 June 2015 with adjustments for cash flows to 31 January 2016. The funding method requires the benefits payable from GSF in respect of past service to be calculated and then discounted back to the valuation date.

For these Forecast Financial Statements, the net GSF liability was updated for the latest discount rates derived from the market yield curve for New Zealand Government bonds as at 31 January 2016.

Other principal long-term financial assumptions were an inflation rate, as measured by the Consumers Price Index (CPI), of 1.62% for the 17 years to 30 June 2032, then increasing gradually each year to 2.5% in the year ended 30 June 2050 and remaining at 2.5% p.a. for all years after that. In addition an annual salary growth rate, before any promotional effects, of 3% (unchanged from 30 June 2014).

The 2015/16 projected increase in the net GSF liability is $452 million, reflecting an increase in the GSF liability of $317 million and a decrease in the GSF net assets of $135 million.

The increase in the GSF liability of $317 million includes an actuarial loss between 1 July 2015 and 31 January 2016, of $702 million, owing to movements in the discount rates and demographic assumptions partly offset by the impact of movements in CPI rates. The remaining $385 million reduction is owing to the current service cost and interest unwind (increases the liability) offset by the lower than expected benefits to members (reduced the liability).

The decrease in the value of the net assets of GSF of $135 million includes a loss of $195 million reflecting the updated market value of assets at 31 January 2016. The balance of $60 million is the total of the expected investment returns and contributions received, offset by the benefits paid to members.

The changes in the projected net GSF liability from 2015/16 onwards reflect the net of the expected current service cost, interest cost, investment returns and contributions.

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

GSF Liability

             
Opening GSF liability 14,560 16,541 14,932 15,249 14,767 14,282 13,801
Net projected change 372 (303) 317 (482) (485) (481) (476)
Closing GSF liability 14,932 16,238 15,249 14,767 14,282 13,801 13,325

Less Net Assets Available to GSF

             
Opening net asset value 3,674 3,979 4,087 3,952 3,975 3,995 4,011
Investment valuation changes 541 234 25 212 213 214 215
Contribution and other income less pension payments (128) (167) (160) (189) (193) (198) (201)
Closing net asset value 4,087 4,046 3,952 3,975 3,995 4,011 4,025

Net GSF Liability

             
Opening unfunded liability 10,886 12,562 10,845 11,297 10,792 10,287 9,790
Net projected change (41) (370) 452 (505) (505) (497) (490)
Closing unfunded liability 10,845 12,192 11,297 10,792 10,287 9,790 9,300

NOTE 21: Provisions

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Provision for employee entitlements 3,533 3,251 3,441 3,492 3,526 3,517 3,556
Provision for ETS credits 855 821 1,303 1,169 1,010 779 521
Provision for National Provident Fund guarantee 893 833 847 797 747 698 649
Other provisions 1,940 1,571 1,761 1,461 1,463 1,459 1,498
Total provisions 7,221 6,476 7,352 6,919 6,746 6,453 6,224

By source

             
Core Crown 4,855 4,040 4,989 4,174 3,805 3,473 3,071
Crown entities 2,113 2,001 2,107 2,118 2,132 2,148 2,171
State-owned Enterprises 1,267 956 1,111 934 965 997 1,019
Inter-segment eliminations (1,014) (521) (855) (307) (156) (165) (37)
Total provisions 7,221 6,476 7,352 6,919 6,746 6,453 6,224

Provision for ETS credits

The Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) was established to assist New Zealand in meeting its international climate change obligations and to reduce New Zealand's net emissions of greenhouse gases to below business-as-usual levels. The ETS creates a limited number of tradable New Zealand Units (NZUs) which the Government can allocate.

The allocation of NZUs creates a provision if allocated for free; the provision is reduced, and revenue recognised, as NZUs are surrendered to the Crown by emitters.

The prices for NZUs used to calculate the ETS provision are assumed to remain constant over the forecast period and are based on market prices during the first week of April 2016.

The ETS impact on the fiscal forecast is as follows:

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Revenue 135 144 306 350 441 517 560
Expenses (133) (102) (196) (216) (282) (286) (302)
Kyoto compliant units surrender expense 3    -     -     -     -     -     - 
Gains/(losses) (339)    -  (558)    -     -     -     - 
Operating balance (334) 42 (448) 134 159 231 258

NOTE 22: Changes in Net Worth

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Taxpayers' funds 19,354 15,978 16,807 20,087 25,269 33,078 42,906
Property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve 67,107 61,873 66,831 66,623 66,414 66,233 66,032
Investment revaluation reserve 101 92 99 108 117 127 138
Cash flow hedge reserve (67) (46) (102) (89) (86) (83) (76)
Foreign currency translation reserve (41) (85) (88) (88) (88) (88) (88)
Net worth attributable to minority interests 5,782 5,223 5,755 5,784 5,852 5,894 5,959
Total net worth 92,236 83,035 89,302 92,425 97,478 105,161 114,871

Taxpayers' funds

             
Opening taxpayers' funds 13,218 12,720 19,354 16,807 20,087 25,269 33,078
Operating balance excluding minority interest 5,771 2,990 (2,565) 3,058 4,957 7,606 9,599
Transfers from/(to) other reserves 392 279 17 222 223 204 229
Other movements (27) (11) 1 2 (1)
Closing taxpayers' funds 19,354 15,978 16,807 20,087 25,269 33,078 42,906

Property, Plant and Equipment Revaluation Reserve

             
Opening revaluation reserve 62,225 62,142 67,107 66,831 66,623 66,414 66,233
Net revaluations 5,274 (259)
Transfers from/(to) other reserves (392) (269) (17) (208) (209) (181) (201)
Closing property, plant and equipment revaluation reserve 67,107 61,873 66,831 66,623 66,414 66,233 66,032

NOTE 23: Core Crown Residual Cash

  2015
Actual
$m
2016
Previous
Budget
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m

Core Crown Cash Flows from Operations

             
Tax receipts 66,348 68,282 69,018 71,177 74,841 79,723 83,831
Other sovereign receipts 889 835 829 846 853 861 824
Interest, profits and dividends 1,806 1,718 1,660 2,030 1,714 1,900 2,085
Sale of goods and services and other receipts 2,433 2,438 2,046 2,313 2,028 1,994 1,990
Transfer payments and subsidies (23,895) (24,498) (24,449) (25,384) (26,039) (26,815) (27,829)
Personnel and operating costs (42,064) (43,745) (43,942) (45,728) (45,672) (44,945) (45,104)
Interest payments (3,922) (3,691) (3,627) (3,819) (3,796) (3,835) (3,568)
Forecast for future new operating spending (305) (2) (534) (1,847) (3,382) (4,876)
Top-down expense adjustment 1,025 600 1,025 685 510 460
Net core Crown operating cash flows 1,595 2,059 2,133 1,926 2,767 6,011 7,813

Core Crown Capital Cash Flows

             
Net purchase of physical assets (1,955) (2,928) (2,336) (3,430) (2,194) (1,788) (1,682)
Net increase in advances (570) (1,216) (64) (616) (391) (252) (125)
Net purchase of investments (1,525) (2,045) (1,917) (2,080) (1,517) (1,372) (1,249)
Government share offer programme 628
Forecast for future new capital spending (316) (31) (587) (737) (690) (907)
Top-down capital adjustment 280 100 625 50 50
Net core Crown capital cash flows (3,422) (6,225) (4,248) (6,088) (4,839) (4,052) (3,913)
Residual cash (deficit)/surplus (1,827) (4,166) (2,115) (4,162) (2,072) 1,959 3,900

The residual cash (deficit)/surplus is funded or invested as follows:

             

Debt Programme Cash Flows

             
Market:              
    Issue of government bonds 8,058 8,462 8,343 7,893 7,099 6,650 6,593
    Repayment of government bonds (8,684) (1,777) (1,779) (11,312) (11,455) (7,440)
    Net issue/(repayment) of short-term borrowing1 4,179 (2,400) (3,653) 400
Total market debt cash flows 3,553 4,285 2,911 8,293 (4,213) (4,805) (847)
Non-market:              
    Repayment of government bonds (482) (303) (138) (665) (165)
    Net issue/(repayment) of short-term borrowing (480) (100) (100)
Total non-market debt cash flows (962) (403) (238) (665) (165)
Total debt programme cash flows 2,591 3,882 2,673 7,628 (4,378) (4,805) (847)

Other Borrowing Cash Flows

             
Net (repayment)/issue of other New Zealand dollar borrowing 3,207 509 (1,036) 559 1,174 (29)
Net (repayment)/issue of foreign currency borrowing (2,757) (722) 844 (590) (1,186) (7) 21
Total other borrowing cash flows 450 (213) (192) (31) (12) (7) (8)

Investing Cash Flows

             
Net sale/(purchase) of marketable securities and deposits 795 337 491 (3,603) 6,281 2,676 (3,231)
Issues of circulating currency 372 164 564 175 180 185 191
Decrease/(increase) in cash (2,381) (4) (1,421) (7) 1 (8) (5)
Total investing cash flows (1,214) 497 (366) (3,435) 6,462 2,853 (3,045)
Residual cash deficit/(surplus) funding/(investing) 1,827 4,166 2,115 4,162 2,072 (1,959) (3,900)
  1. Short-term borrowing consists of Treasury Bills and may include Euro-Commercial Paper.

NOTE 24: Net earthquake expenses (operating and capital)

These net earthquake costs are the latest estimates of the net impact on the Crown of the earthquakes. These estimates reflect the known costs under current policy settings. They do not include future decisions the Government may take regarding the rebuild.

The forecasts assume that any additional costs to the Crown will be met within budget allowances.

  2011-15
Actual
$m
2016
Forecast
$m
2017
Forecast
$m
2018
Forecast
$m
2019
Forecast
$m
2020
Forecast
$m
Outside
forecast
period
$m
Total
Budget
Update
$m
Total
Half Year
Update
$m
Local infrastructure 1,582 107 164 1,853 1,853
Crown assets1 471 520 593 426 144 78 150 2,382 2,403
Land zoning 999 88 57 1,144 1,157
Christchurch central city rebuild2 767 81 602 187 84 16 (175) 1,562 1,472
Welfare support 297 4 3 2 306 306
Southern Response support package 907 135 (38) (15) (2) 987 847
Other costs 726 141 73 50 62 68 3 1,123 1,243
Core Crown Canterbury earthquake recovery costs 5,749 1,076 1,454 650 288 162 (22) 9,357 9,281
EQC (net of reinsurance proceeds) 7,313 (108) (205) (65) (8) 6,927 6,949
Other SOE and Crown entities (119) 217 321 238 121 56 63 897 810
Total Crown 12,943 1,185 1,570 823 401 218 41 17,181 17,040

Operating and Capital expenses

                 
Operating expenditure (OBEGAL) 11,497 417 445 30 111 116 44 12,660 12,628
Capital expenditure 1,446 768 1,125 793 290 102 (3) 4,521 4,412
Total Crown 12,943 1,185 1,570 823 401 218 41 17,181 17,040
Total cash payments3 9,801 2,023 2,683 1,374 455 218 39 16,593 16,477

Notes:

  1. Crown assets includes capital expenditure on Canterbury hospitals, schools, Tertiary Education Institutions, housing and the Justice and Emergency Services Precinct.
  2. Central city rebuild costs include land acquisition and are net of expected recoveries and contributions from third parties.
  3. Some expenses are non-cash (eg, asset write-offs and impairments) and therefore do not have a cash element to them.

Forecast Statement of Segments

Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2015
  Core Crown
2015
Actual
$m
Crown entities
2015
Actual
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2015
Actual
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2015
Actual
$m
Total Crown
2015
Actual
$m

Revenue

         
Taxation revenue 66,636 (581) 66,055
Other sovereign revenue 993 5,062 (1,102) 4,953
Revenue from core Crown funding 25,535 139 (25,674)
Sales of goods and services 1,393 1,854 14,171 (552) 16,866
Interest revenue and dividends 2,452 1,429 1,043 (1,400) 3,524
Other revenue 739 2,414 822 (360) 3,615
Total revenue (excluding gains) 72,213 36,294 16,175 (29,669) 95,013

Expenses

         
Social assistance and official development assistance 23,723 23,723
Personnel expenses 6,552 11,660 2,935 (23) 21,124
Other operating expenses 38,299 19,665 10,983 (28,195) 40,752
Interest expenses 3,783 221 1,280 (721) 4,563
Insurance expenses 6 4,085 11 8 4,110
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment
Total expenses (excluding losses) 72,363 35,631 15,209 (28,931) 94,272
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 21 (384) 36 (327)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) (150) 684 582 (702) 414
Total gains/(losses) 3,670 1,417 342 (1,100) 4,329
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures 359 685 (235) 219 1,028
Operating balance 3,879 2,786 689 (1,583) 5,771

Expenses by functional classification

         
Social security and welfare 23,523 5,246 (538) 28,231
Health 15,058 12,922 (13,284) 14,696
Education 12,879 9,853 (9,195) 13,537
Transport and communications 2,291 2,564 6,919 (2,495) 9,279
Other 14,829 4,825 7,010 (2,698) 23,966
Finance costs 3,783 221 1,280 (721) 4,563
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment
Total expenses (excluding losses) 72,363 35,631 15,209 (28,931) 94,272
Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2015
  Core Crown
2015
Actual
$m
Crown entities
2015
Actual
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2015
Actual
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2015
Actual
$m
Total Crown
2015
Actual
$m

Assets

         
Cash and cash equivalents 9,032 2,452 1,039 (541) 11,982
Receivables 12,171 6,361 1,783 (2,713) 17,602
Other financial assets 67,552 36,443 19,766 (17,558) 106,203
Property, plant and equipment 32,289 61,417 30,852 124,558
Equity accounted investments 34,883 9,790 565 (33,320) 11,918
Intangible assets and goodwill 1,239 607 1,210 3,056
Inventory and other assets 1,547 674 1,194 (31) 3,384
Forecast for new capital spending and top-down adjustment
Total assets 158,713 117,744 56,409 (54,163) 278,703

Liabilities

         
Borrowings 95,549 5,640 28,437 (17,046) 112,580
Other liabilities 29,762 44,766 7,572 (8,213) 73,887
Total liabilities 125,311 50,406 36,009 (25,259) 186,467
Total assets less total liabilities 33,402 67,338 20,400 (28,904) 92,236

Net worth

         
Taxpayers' funds 15,766 32,400 3,752 (32,564) 19,354
Reserves 17,636 34,839 10,565 4,060 67,100
Net worth attributable to minority interest 99 6,083 (400) 5,782
Total net worth 33,402 67,338 20,400 (28,904) 92,236
Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2016
  Core Crown
2016
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2016
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2016
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2016
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2016
Forecast
$m

Revenue

         
Taxation revenue 69,682 (751) 68,931
Other sovereign revenue 1,178 4,632 (1,173) 4,637
Revenue from core Crown funding 26,326 118 (26,444)
Sales of goods and services 1,470 1,863 14,055 (522) 16,866
Interest revenue and dividends 2,404 1,470 1,061 (1,214) 3,721
Other revenue 595 2,376 849 (213) 3,607
Total revenue (excluding gains) 75,329 36,667 16,083 (30,317) 97,762

Expenses

         
Social assistance and official development assistance 24,421 24,421
Personnel expenses 6,683 12,185 2,937 (22) 21,783
Other operating expenses 40,228 20,314 10,624 (28,988) 42,178
Interest expenses 3,647 176 1,246 (597) 4,472
Insurance expenses 1 4,327 8 (1) 4,335
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment (598) (598)
Total expenses (excluding losses) 74,382 37,002 14,815 (29,608) 96,591
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 13 (549) 33 (503)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) 947 (322) 719 (676) 668
Total gains/(losses) (1,484) (1,971) 151 (213) (3,517)
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures 100 182 3 (1) 284
Operating balance (437) (2,111) 873 (890) (2,565)

Expenses by functional classification

         
Social security and welfare 24,296 5,234 (494) 29,036
Health 15,635 13,233 (13,712) 15,156
Education 13,215 10,212 (9,459) 13,968
Transport and communications 2,246 2,705 6,994 (2,510) 9,435
Other 15,941 5,442 6,575 (2,836) 25,122
Finance costs 3,647 176 1,246 (597) 4,472
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment (598) (598)
Total expenses (excluding losses) 74,382 37,002 14,815 (29,608) 96,591
Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2016
  Core Crown
2016
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2016
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2016
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2016
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2016
Forecast
$m

Assets

         
Cash and cash equivalents 11,860 2,479 1,266 (569) 15,036
Receivables 12,304 5,163 1,779 (2,300) 16,946
Other financial assets 62,982 37,626 20,661 (18,593) 102,676
Property, plant and equipment 32,995 62,967 31,039 127,001
Equity accounted investments 38,222 10,077 548 (36,675) 12,172
Intangible assets and goodwill 1,388 596 1,322 3,306
Inventory and other assets 1,675 672 1,014 (36) 3,325
Forecast for new capital spending and top-down adjustment (69) (69)
Total assets 161,357 119,580 57,629 (58,173) 280,393

Liabilities

         
Borrowings 95,671 5,924 29,579 (18,165) 113,009
Other liabilities 31,271 46,977 7,480 (7,646) 78,082
Total liabilities 126,942 52,901 37,059 (25,811) 191,091
Total assets less total liabilities 34,415 66,679 20,570 (32,362) 89,302

Net worth

         
Taxpayers' funds 16,776 31,972 4,065 (36,006) 16,807
Reserves 17,639 34,588 10,496 4,017 66,740
Net worth attributable to minority interest 119 6,009 (373) 5,755
Total net worth 34,415 66,679 20,570 (32,362) 89,302
Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2017
  Core Crown
2017
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2017
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2017
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2017
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2017
Forecast
$m

Revenue

         
Taxation revenue 71,971 (750) 71,221
Other sovereign revenue 1,225 4,709 (1,341) 4,593
Revenue from core Crown funding 27,047 109 (27,156)
Sales of goods and services 1,521 1,969 14,308 (539) 17,259
Interest revenue and dividends 3,254 1,411 1,114 (1,512) 4,267
Other revenue 573 2,402 925 (285) 3,615
Total revenue (excluding gains) 78,544 37,538 16,456 (31,583) 100,955

Expenses

         
Social assistance and official development assistance 25,395 25,395
Personnel expenses 6,899 12,413 2,855 (23) 22,144
Other operating expenses 41,902 20,952 11,017 (30,005) 43,866
Interest expenses 3,682 209 1,276 (601) 4,566
Insurance expenses 1 4,231 8 (1) 4,239
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment (491) (491)
Total expenses (excluding losses) 77,388 37,805 15,156 (30,630) 99,719
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 14 (563) 32 (517)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) 1,156 (253) 737 (921) 719
Total gains/(losses) 1,968 243 26 (184) 2,053
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures 93 188 4 1 286
Operating balance 3,217 178 767 (1,104) 3,058

Expenses by functional classification

         
Social security and welfare 25,224 5,442 (546) 30,120
Health 16,214 13,653 (14,300) 15,567
Education 13,478 10,267 (9,510) 14,235
Transport and communications 2,358 2,836 7,124 (2,677) 9,641
Other 16,923 5,398 6,756 (2,996) 26,081
Finance costs 3,682 209 1,276 (601) 4,566
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment (491) (491)
Total expenses (excluding losses) 77,388 37,805 15,156 (30,630) 99,719
Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2017
  Core Crown
2017
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2017
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2017
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2017
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2017
Forecast
$m

Assets

         
Cash and cash equivalents 12,465 2,300 903 (500) 15,168
Receivables 12,577 4,720 1,689 (1,502) 17,484
Other financial assets 67,772 37,875 21,575 (18,537) 108,685
Property, plant and equipment 34,734 64,898 31,468 -   131,100
Equity accounted investments 40,169 10,286 607 (38,611) 12,451
Intangible assets and goodwill 1,601 690 1,352 3,643
Inventory and other assets 1,634 675 893 (38) 3,164
Forecast for new capital spending and top-down adjustment (107) (107)
Total assets 170,845 121,444 58,487 (59,188) 291,588

Liabilities

         
Borrowings 102,813 6,345 30,666 (18,126) 121,698
Other liabilities 30,355 46,529 7,387 (6,806) 77,465
Total liabilities 133,168 52,874 38,053 (24,932) 199,163
Total assets less total liabilities 37,677 68,570 20,434 (34,256) 92,425

Net worth

         
Taxpayers' funds 20,013 34,050 3,933 (37,909) 20,087
Reserves 17,664 34,369 10,498 4,023 66,554
Net worth attributable to minority interest 151 6,003 (370) 5,784
Total net worth 37,677 68,570 20,434 (34,256) 92,425
Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2018
  Core Crown
2018
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2018
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2018
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2018
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2018
Forecast
$m

Revenue

         
Taxation revenue 75,678 (767) 74,911
Other sovereign revenue 1,323 4,872 (1,412) 4,783
Revenue from core Crown funding 27,190 104 (27,294)
Sales of goods and services 1,565 2,023 14,820 (538) 17,870
Interest revenue and dividends 2,989 1,430 1,267 (1,189) 4,497
Other revenue 543 2,454 972 (281) 3,688
Total revenue (excluding gains) 82,098 37,969 17,163 (31,481) 105,749

Expenses

         
Social assistance and official development assistance 26,039 26,039
Personnel expenses 6,935 12,522 2,890 (23) 22,324
Other operating expenses 41,801 20,972 11,476 (30,264) 43,985
Interest expenses 3,781 204 1,381 (554) 4,812
Insurance expenses 1 4,403 8 4,412
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment 1,162 1,162
Total expenses (excluding losses) 79,719 38,101 15,755 (30,841) 102,734
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 3 (597) 34 (560)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) 2,379 (129) 811 (606) 2,455
Total gains/(losses) 2,075 294 33 (185) 2,217
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures 94 186 4 1 285
Operating balance 4,548 351 848 (790) 4,957

Expenses by functional classification

         
Social security and welfare 25,703 5,493 (563) 30,633
Health 16,270 13,660 (14,345) 15,585
Education 13,661 10,356 (9,596) 14,421
Transport and communications 2,382 2,827 7,325 (2,734) 9,800
Other 16,760 5,561 7,049 (3,049) 26,321
Finance costs 3,781 204 1,381 (554) 4,812
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment 1,162 1,162
Total expenses (excluding losses) 79,719 38,101 15,755 (30,841) 102,734
Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2018
  Core Crown
2018
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2018
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2018
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2018
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2018
Forecast
$m

Assets

         
Cash and cash equivalents 13,132 2,184 1,379 (499) 16,196
Receivables 13,043 4,279 1,692 (1,362) 17,652
Other financial assets 62,813 38,846 22,912 (18,831) 105,740
Property, plant and equipment 35,409 66,446 31,613 133,468
Equity accounted investments 41,504 10,478 684 (39,935) 12,731
Intangible assets and goodwill 1,688 727 1,357 3,772
Inventory and other assets 1,637 680 877 (36) 3,158
Forecast for new capital spending and top-down adjustment 630 630
Total assets 169,856 123,640 60,514 (60,663) 293,347

Liabilities

         
Borrowings 98,238 6,615 32,358 (18,444) 118,767
Other liabilities 29,368 46,805 7,576 (6,647) 77,102
Total liabilities 127,606 53,420 39,934 (25,091) 195,869
Total assets less total liabilities 42,250 70,220 20,580 (35,572) 97,478

Net worth

         
Taxpayers' funds 24,561 35,921 4,021 (39,234) 25,269
Reserves 17,689 34,145 10,491 4,032 66,357
Net worth attributable to minority interest 154 6,068 (370) 5,852
Total net worth 42,250 70,220 20,580 (35,572) 97,478
Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2019
  Core Crown
2019
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2019
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2019
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2019
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2019
Forecast
$m

Revenue

         
Taxation revenue 80,269 (841) 79,428
Other sovereign revenue 1,409 5,114 (1,508) 5,015
Revenue from core Crown funding 27,169 104 (27,273)
Sales of goods and services 1,598 2,073 15,084 (547) 18,208
Interest revenue and dividends 3,242 1,475 1,347 (1,239) 4,825
Other revenue 502 2,510 1,013 (279) 3,746
Total revenue (excluding gains) 87,020 38,341 17,548 (31,687) 111,222

Expenses

         
Social assistance and official development assistance 26,816 26,816
Personnel expenses 6,916 12,504 2,971 (23) 22,368
Other operating expenses 41,700 21,003 11,657 (30,381) 43,979
Interest expenses 3,738 207 1,420 (559) 4,806
Insurance expenses 5 4,809 8 (4) 4,818
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment 2,872 -   2,872
Total expenses (excluding losses) 82,047 38,523 16,056 (30,967) 105,659
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) 6 (633) 36 (591)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) 4,973 (176) 859 (684) 4,972
Total gains/(losses) 2,236 302 11 (202) 2,347
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures 99 186 8 (6) 287
Operating balance 7,308 312 878 (892) 7,606

Expenses by functional classification

         
Social security and welfare 26,433 5,864 (579) 31,718
Health 16,344 13,690 (14,446) 15,588
Education 13,705 10,319 (9,554) 14,470
Transport and communications 2,407 2,783 7,584 (2,796) 9,978
Other 16,548 5,660 7,052 (3,033) 26,227
Finance costs 3,738 207 1,420 (559) 4,806
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment 2,872 2,872
Total expenses (excluding losses) 82,047 38,523 16,056 (30,967) 105,659
Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2019
  Core Crown
2019
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2019
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2019
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2019
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2019
Forecast
$m

Assets

         
Cash and cash equivalents 13,854 2,282 1,715 (499) 17,352
Receivables 13,666 4,356 1,739 (1,411) 18,350
Other financial assets 61,447 40,054 24,293 (19,315) 106,479
Property, plant and equipment 35,721 67,827 31,734 135,282
Equity accounted investments 42,856 10,669 755 (41,275) 13,005
Intangible assets and goodwill 1,735 727 1,372 3,834
Inventory and other assets 1,638 689 859 (37) 3,149
Forecast for new capital spending and top-down adjustment 1,270 1,270
Total assets 172,187 126,604 62,467 (62,537) 298,721

Liabilities

         
Borrowings 93,288 6,790 33,972 (18,927) 115,123
Other liabilities 29,305 48,021 7,742 (6,631) 78,437
Total liabilities 122,593 54,811 41,714 (25,558) 193,560
Total assets less total liabilities 49,594 71,793 20,753 (36,979) 105,161

Net worth

         
Taxpayers' funds 31,869 37,728 4,121 (40,640) 33,078
Reserves 17,725 33,945 10,487 4,032 66,189
Net worth attributable to minority interest 120 6,145 (371) 5,894
Total net worth 49,594 71,793 20,753 (36,979) 105,161
Statement of Financial Performance for the year ended 30 June 2020
  Core Crown
2020
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2020
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2020
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2020
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2020
Forecast
$m

Revenue

         
Taxation revenue 84,401 (901) 83,500
Other sovereign revenue 1,418 5,243 (1,510) 5,151
Revenue from core Crown funding 27,267 105 (27,372)
Sales of goods and services 1,607 2,143 15,313 (554) 18,509
Interest revenue and dividends 3,486 1,528 1,449 (1,290) 5,173
Other revenue 502 2,610 1,042 (276) 3,878
Total revenue (excluding gains) 91,414 38,791 17,909 (31,903) 116,211

Expenses

         
Social assistance and official development assistance 27,789 27,789
Personnel expenses 6,894 12,559 3,042 (23) 22,472
Other operating expenses 41,975 21,071 11,742 (30,538) 44,250
Interest expenses 3,743 207 1,505 (592) 4,863
Insurance expenses 1 5,090 8 (1) 5,098
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment 4,416 4,416
Total expenses (excluding losses) 84,818 38,927 16,297 (31,154) 108,888
Minority interest share of operating balance before gains/(losses) (21) (658) 37 (642)
Operating balance before gains/(losses) 6,596 (157) 954 (712) 6,681
Total gains/(losses) 2,422 420 10 (223) 2,629
Net surplus/(deficit) from associates and joint ventures 92 189 11 (3) 289
Operating balance 9,110 452 975 (938) 9,599

Expenses by functional classification

         
Social security and welfare 27,367 6,139 (595) 32,911
Health 16,333 13,720 (14,427) 15,626
Education 13,861 10,365 (9,601) 14,625
Transport and communications 2,455 2,758 7,727 (2,877) 10,063
Other 16,643 5,738 7,065 (3,062) 26,384
Finance costs 3,743 207 1,505 (592) 4,863
Forecast for future new spending and top-down adjustment 4,416 4,416
Total expenses (excluding losses) 84,818 38,927 16,297 (31,154) 108,888
Statement of Financial Position as at 30 June 2020
  Core Crown
2020
Forecast
$m
Crown entities
2020
Forecast
$m
State-owned
Enterprises
2020
Forecast
$m
Inter-segment
eliminations
2020
Forecast
$m
Total Crown
2020
Forecast
$m

Assets

         
Cash and cash equivalents 14,625 2,301 2,277 (497) 18,706
Receivables 14,256 4,576 1,776 (1,443) 19,165
Other financial assets 66,120 41,478 25,784 (19,721) 113,661
Property, plant and equipment 35,680 69,218 31,896 136,794
Equity accounted investments 44,085 10,860 823 (42,493) 13,275
Intangible assets and goodwill 1,730 715 1,384 3,829
Inventory and other assets 1,636 701 860 (37) 3,160
Forecast for new capital spending and top-down adjustment 2,128 2,128
Total assets 180,260 129,849 64,800 (64,191) 310,718

Liabilities

         
Borrowings 92,505 6,756 35,950 (19,310) 115,901
Other liabilities 29,014 49,702 7,837 (6,607) 79,946
Total liabilities 121,519 56,458 43,787 (25,917) 195,847
Total assets less total liabilities 58,741 73,391 21,013 (38,274) 114,871

Net worth

         
Taxpayers' funds 40,980 39,571 4,293 (41,938) 42,906
Reserves 17,761 33,718 10,491 4,036 66,006
Net worth attributable to minority interest 102 6,229 (372) 5,959
Total net worth 58,741 73,391 21,013 (38,274) 114,871

Core Crown Expense Tables

($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Social security and welfare 21,724 21,956 22,459 23,026 23,523 24,296 25,224 25,703 26,433 27,367
GSF pension expenses 305 192 278 282 358 272 212 220 232 243
Health 13,753 14,160 14,498 14,898 15,058 15,635 16,214 16,270 16,344 16,333
Education 11,650 11,654 12,504 12,300 12,879 13,215 13,478 13,661 13,705 13,861
Core government services 5,563 5,428 4,294 4,502 4,134 4,446 4,943 4,797 4,626 4,594
Law and order 3,312 3,338 3,394 3,463 3,515 3,691 3,811 3,840 3,796 3,808
Defence 1,809 1,736 1,804 1,811 1,961 2,047 2,177 2,215 2,223 2,231
Transport and communications 2,281 2,232 2,255 2,237 2,291 2,246 2,358 2,382 2,407 2,455
Economic and industrial services 2,542 2,073 1,978 2,058 2,228 2,134 2,493 2,461 2,461 2,504
Heritage, culture and recreation 741 863 804 842 778 794 855 849 838 884
Primary services 706 648 659 676 667 777 709 616 620 620
Housing and community development 943 ( 46) 283 347 320 583 568 526 520 508
Environmental protection 1,225 769 530 533 723 685 716 770 770 789
Other 479 425 603 579 145 512 439 466 462 462
Finance costs 3,066 3,511 3,619 3,620 3,783 3,647 3,682 3,781 3,738 3,743
Forecast new operating spending1  ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  2 534 1,847 3,382 4,876
Top-down expense adjustment  ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  ( 600) ( 1,025) ( 685) ( 510) ( 460)
Core Crown expenses 70,099 68,939 69,962 71,174 72,363 74,382 77,388 79,719 82,047 84,818
  1. The classifications of the functions of the Government reflect current approved baselines. Forecast new operating spending is shown as a separate line item in the above analysis and will be allocated to functions of the Government once decisions are made in future Budgets.

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.1 - Social security and welfare expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Welfare benefits (see below) 19,781 20,375 20,789 21,187 21,680 22,481 23,338 23,904 24,654 25,590
Social rehabilitation and compensation 119 81 107 173 142 151 219 163 176 176
Departmental expenses 1,127 1,122 1,168 1,204 1,319 1,366 1,379 1,356 1,323 1,320
Child support impairment ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  5 5 5 5 5
Other non-departmental expenses1 697 378 395 462 382 293 283 275 275 276
Social security and welfare expenses 21,724 21,956 22,459 23,026 23,523 24,296 25,224 25,703 26,433 27,367
  1. Other non-departmental expenses and other expenses include costs associated with the Canterbury earthquakes. This is most representative in the 2011 year. From 2016 some non-departmental expenses spending has been reclassified to community services in housing and community development expenses.

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.2 - Welfare benefit expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
New Zealand Superannuation 8,830 9,584 10,235 10,913 11,591 12,261 12,912 13,473 14,161 14,916
Jobseeker Support and Emergency Benefit1 ..  ..  ..  1,691 1,684 1,674 1,677 1,614 1,577 1,571
Supported living payment1 ..  ..  ..  1,422 1,515 1,524 1,515 1,493 1,509 1,529
Sole parent support1 ..  ..  ..  1,222 1,186 1,151 1,199 1,189 1,190 1,195
Domestic Purposes Benefit1 1,757 1,811 1,738 63 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Invalid's Benefit1 1,306 1,325 1,330 52 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Sickness Benefit1 743 775 782 29 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Unemployment Benefit 943 883 812 29 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Family Tax Credit 2,130 2,071 2,018 1,965 1,854 1,824 1,797 1,790 1,772 1,831
Other working for families tax credits 616 599 575 567 549 568 645 639 633 639
Accommodation Assistance 1,197 1,195 1,177 1,146 1,129 1,135 1,149 1,169 1,179 1,184
Income-Related Rents 553 580 611 660 703 766 827 904 979 1,050
Disability Assistance 409 401 384 379 377 377 376 378 379 382
Benefits paid in Australia 40 37 22 19 15 40 ..  ..  ..  .. 
Paid Parental Leave 154 158 165 165 180 233 277 288 297 304
Childcare Assistance 188 188 186 186 183 187 211 207 205 205
Veterans Support Entitlement2 135 128 123 119 115 107 98 92 88 84
Veteran's Pension 178 177 171 165 178 186 177 168 160 151
Other benefits 602 463 460 395 421 448 478 500 525 549
Benefit expenses 19,781 20,375 20,789 21,187 21,680 22,481 23,338 23,904 24,654 25,590

Source: The Treasury

Beneficiary numbers
(Thousands)
2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
New Zealand Superannuation 561 585 612 640 665 691 716 742 768 794
Jobseeker Support and Emergency Benefit1 ..  ..  ..  138 133 130 130 126 120 117
Supported living payment1 ..  ..  ..  96 98 98 97 96 96 95
Sole parent support1 ..  ..  ..  78 72 67 66 66 65 64
Domestic Purposes Benefit1 114 114 109 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Invalid's Benefit1 88 87 87 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Sickness Benefit1 60 60 60 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Unemployment Benefit1 80 73 67 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Accommodation Assistance 320 311 305 297 292 293 296 301 303 303

Source: Ministry of Social Development

  1. From July 2013, changes to the benefit system and existing benefit categories took place. Three new categories of benefit; Supported living payment, Sole parent support and Jobseeker support; have replaced the following existing categories: Domestic Purposes Benefit, Invalid's Benefit, Unemployment Benefit, Sickness Benefit and Widow's Benefit. Owing to the changes, there is no historical data for the new benefit categories and no forecast data for the previous categories beyond July 2013.
  2. From 2015, War Disablement Pensions have been renamed Veterans Support Entitlements.
Table 6.3 - Health expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Departmental outputs 199 186 171 183 190 189 190 189 189 189
Health services purchasing (see below) 12,530 13,018 13,348 13,648 13,937 14,374 14,884 14,823 14,806 14,797
Other non-departmental outputs 120 119 234 330 312 355 452 462 483 493
Health payments to ACC 849 744 715 694 587 689 658 768 837 826
Other expenses 55 93 30 43 32 28 30 28 29 28
Health expenses 13,753 14,160 14,498 14,898 15,058 15,635 16,214 16,270 16,344 16,333

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.4 - Health services purchasing
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Payments to District Health Boards 11,133 11,542 11,946 12,165 12,414 12,832 13,317 13,289 13,276 13,267
National disability support services 971 1,029 1,028 1,087 1,126 1,167 1,166 1,164 1,164 1,164
Public health services purchasing 426 447 374 396 397 375 401 370 366 366
Health services purchasing 12,530 13,018 13,348 13,648 13,937 14,374 14,884 14,823 14,806 14,797

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.5 - Education expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Early childhood education 1,340 1,355 1,436 1,545 1,644 1,741 1,812 1,860 1,923 1,996
Primary and secondary schools (see below) 5,354 5,443 5,590 5,550 5,773 6,077 6,123 6,233 6,202 6,252
Tertiary funding (see below) 3,991 3,795 4,370 4,027 4,272 4,183 4,327 4,354 4,359 4,378
Departmental expenses 923 988 1,039 1,107 1,129 1,124 1,131 1,138 1,154 1,175
Other education expenses 42 73 69 71 61 90 85 76 67 60
Education expenses 11,650 11,654 12,504 12,300 12,879 13,215 13,478 13,661 13,705 13,861

Source: The Treasury

Number of places provided1 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Early childhood education 159,997 166,434 174,782 183,843 190,423 201,908 211,808 217,862 226,331 235,906
  1. Full-time equivalent based on 1,000 funded child hours per calendar year. Note that historical place numbers have been revised so may differ from previous published Economic and Fiscal Update numbers.

Source: Ministry of Education

Table 6.6 - Primary and secondary schools
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Primary 2,731 2,771 2,845 2,812 2,920 3,051 3,097 3,150 3,132 3,153
Secondary 2,051 2,085 2,148 2,146 2,229 2,338 2,337 2,387 2,382 2,408
School transport 163 172 175 177 186 186 190 197 192 192
Special needs support 310 323 332 322 336 397 400 403 398 401
Professional development 90 85 84 87 98 100 94 91 92 92
Schooling improvement 9 7 6 6 4 5 5 5 6 6
Primary and secondary education expenses 5,354 5,443 5,590 5,550 5,773 6,077 6,123 6,233 6,202 6,252

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.6 - Primary and secondary schools (continued)
Number of places provided1 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Primary 489,275 489,799 493,025 497,765 507,132 513,267 516,456 518,065 517,510 515,769
Secondary 274,518 271,078 267,627 266,734 265,557 274,163 273,775 273,228 274,268 277,882
  1. These are snapshots based as at 1 July for primary year levels (years 1 to 8) and 1 March for secondary year levels (years 9 to 13). These numbers exclude special school rolls, health camps, hospital schools and home schooling (prior published tables included special school rolls). These estimates include a new entrant adjustment to make provision for the number of new entrants likely to be enrolled between 1 March and 10 October. Actual numbers have been restated to include this adjustment so may differ from previous published Economic and Fiscal Update numbers.

Source: Ministry of Education

Table 6.7 - Tertiary funding
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Tuition 2,354 2,306 2,322 2,383 2,406 2,465 2,491 2,467 2,469 2,472
Other tertiary funding 429 430 432 463 484 503 537 544 542 542
Student allowances 620 644 596 539 511 496 510 540 542 547
Student loans 588 415 1,020 642 871 719 789 803 806 817
Tertiary education expenses 3,991 3,795 4,370 4,027 4,272 4,183 4,327 4,354 4,359 4,378

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.7 - Tertiary funding (continued)
Number of places provided1 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Forecast
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Actual delivered and estimated funded places 239,025 244,116 242,358 240,644 233,551 236,700 235,500 235,300 231,700 231,800
  1. Tertiary places are the number of equivalent full time (EFT) students in: student achievement component; adult and community education; and youth guarantee programmes. Note that historical place numbers have been revised so may differ from previous published Economic and Fiscal Update numbers. Place numbers are based on calendar years rather than fiscal years.

Source: Ministry of Education

Table 6.8 - Core government service expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Official development assistance 495 510 437 533 513 530 592 595 586 586
Indemnity and guarantee expenses 319 59 27 29 38 27 25 25 25 25
Departmental expenses 1,492 1,518 1,576 1,635 1,740 1,845 1,978 2,003 1,929 1,853
Non-departmental expenses1,2 471 524 330 689 481 361 682 626 532 569
Tax receivable write-down and impairments 1,010 1,003 925 1,069 873 1,003 1,093 1,124 1,121 1,119
Science expenses 174 116 115 118 121 118 90 96 104 112
Other expenses1 1,602 1,698 884 429 368 562 483 328 329 330
Core government service expenses 5,563 5,428 4,294 4,502 4,134 4,446 4,943 4,797 4,626 4,594
  1. Non-departmental expenses and other expenses include costs associated with the Canterbury earthquakes.
  2. From 2017 onwards, biological research has been reclassified from Primary services to non-departmental expenses within core government services.

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.9 - Law and order expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Police 1,393 1,394 1,408 1,416 1,456 1,498 1,523 1,540 1,535 1,536
Ministry of Justice 327 375 404 433 451 470 484 482 440 438
Department of Corrections 956 988 972 1,001 1,024 1,082 1,125 1,129 1,120 1,127
NZ Customs Service 120 126 140 150 161 160 174 175 174 177
Other departments 237 103 98 86 100 106 120 126 137 140
Department expenses 3,033 2,986 3,022 3,086 3,192 3,316 3,426 3,452 3,406 3,418
Non-departmental outputs 261 315 317 327 320 357 362 365 364 364
Other expenses 18 37 55 50 3 18 23 23 26 26
Law and order expenses 3,312 3,338 3,394 3,463 3,515 3,691 3,811 3,840 3,796 3,808

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.10 - Defence expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
NZDF core expenses 1,736 1,678 1,747 1,768 1,879 1,992 2,100 2,113 2,116 2,116
Other expenses 73 58 57 43 82 55 77 102 107 115
Defence expenses 1,809 1,736 1,804 1,811 1,961 2,047 2,177 2,215 2,223 2,231

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.11 - Transport and communication expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
New Zealand Transport Agency 1,696 1,744 1,819 1,880 1,992 2,044 2,136 2,153 2,201 2,265
Departmental outputs 65 60 40 45 43 47 49 48 47 46
Other non-departmental expenses 105 62 213 227 114 105 92 115 122 107
Rail funding 386 305 153 56 93 3 3 3 3 3
Other expenses 29 61 30 29 49 47 78 63 34 34
Transport and communication expenses 2,281 2,232 2,255 2,237 2,291 2,246 2,358 2,382 2,407 2,455

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.12 - Economic and industrial services expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Departmental outputs 420 346 350 372 391 401 408 386 387 387
Employment initiatives1 214 206 192 141 75 4 4 4 4 4
Non-departmental outputs 689 614 618 660 742 809 1,157 1,134 1,103 1,108
KiwiSaver (includes housing deposit subsidy) 1,045 698 740 828 888 771 824 871 907 946
Other expenses 174 209 78 57 132 149 100 66 60 59
Economic and industrial services expenses 2,542 2,073 1,978 2,058 2,228 2,134 2,493 2,461 2,461 2,504
  1. From 2016 some of the employment initiatives spending has been reclassified to other non-departmental expenses in housing and community development expenses.

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.13 - Heritage, culture and recreation expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Departmental outputs 133 172 270 286 280 275 281 276 276 275
Non-departmental outputs 455 444 442 471 468 482 503 505 505 518
Other expenses 153 247 92 85 30 37 71 68 57 91
Heritage, culture and recreation expenses 741 863 804 842 778 794 855 849 838 884

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.14 - Primary service expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Departmental expenses 354 348 347 365 384 423 452 434 436 437
Non-departmental outputs 142 134 137 135 114 96 93 91 94 88
Biological research1 167 102 105 92 91 98 ..  ..  ..  .. 
Other expenses 43 64 70 84 78 160 164 91 90 95
Primary service expenses 706 648 659 676 667 777 709 616 620 620
  1. From 2017 onwards, biological research has been reclassified from Primary services to non-departmental expenses within core government services.

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.15 - Housing and community development expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Financial assistance package1 567 (407) (60) ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .. 
Housing subsidies 31 22 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6
Community Services2 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  192 192 184 186 186
Departmental outputs 136 98 89 100 113 176 187 172 167 167
Other non-departmental expenses 105 113 117 138 117 126 139 132 134 123
Warm up New Zealand 67 84 76 49 37 23 11 6 ..  .. 
Other expenses 37 44 56 55 48 60 33 26 27 26
Housing and community development expenses 943 (46) 283 347 320 583 568 526 520 508
  1. Financial assistance package for 2012 and 2013 actual includes the impact of a revised estimate of the weathertight homes financial assistance package provision.
  2. For 2016 onwards, community services have been reclassified from non-departmental expenses in Social Security and Welfare expenses and employment initiatives in economic expenses.

Source: The Treasury

Table 6.16 - Environmental protection expenses
($millions) 2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Emissions Trading Scheme 838 334 55 46 133 196 216 282 286 302
Departmental outputs 301 342 335 362 360 390 367 366 368 370
Non-departmental outputs 26 46 88 48 41 62 80 76 68 71
Other expenses 60 47 52 77 189 37 53 46 48 46
Environmental protection expenses 1,225 769 530 533 723 685 716 770 770 789

Source: The Treasury

Glossary of Terms

Accruals basis of accounting

An accounting basis where revenue is recognised when earned and expenses when the obligations they relate to are incurred. This contrasts to cash accounting, where income is recognised when the cash is received and expenses when cash to settle an obligation is paid out.

Appropriations

Appropriations are legal authorities granted by Parliament to the Crown or an Office of Parliament to use public resources. Most appropriations are set out in Appropriation Acts.

Baselines

The level of funding approved for any given area of spending (eg, Vote Education).

Commercial portfolio

Consists of assets and liabilities held by companies with commercial objectives, predominantly State-owned Enterprises.

Consumers Price Index (CPI)

Statistics New Zealand's official index to measure the rate of change in prices of goods and services purchased by households.

Contingent assets

Income that the Crown will realise if a particular uncertain event occurs, or a present asset is unable to be measured with sufficient reliability to be recorded in the financial statements (unquantified contingent assets). Contingent assets typically comprise loans with specific events that trigger repayment and IRD pending assessments (where there is a proposed adjustment to a tax assessment).

Contingent liabilities

Costs that the Crown will have to face if a particular uncertain event occurs, or present liabilities that are unable to be measured with sufficient reliability to be recorded in the financial statements (unquantified contingent liabilities). Contingent liabilities typically comprise guarantees and indemnities, legal disputes and claims, and uncalled capital.

Core Crown

A reporting segment consisting of the Crown, departments, Offices of Parliament, the NZS Fund and the Reserve Bank. For a list of all entities included in this segment, refer to the Government Reporting Entity (pages 93 to 95).

Core Crown expenses

The day-to-day spending (eg, public servants' salaries, welfare benefit payments, finance costs and maintaining national defence etc) that does not build or purchase physical assets by the core Crown. This is an accrual measure of expenses and includes non-cash items such as depreciation on physical assets.

Core Crown revenue

Consists primarily of tax revenue collected by the Government but also includes investment income, sales of goods and services and other revenue of the core Crown.

Corporate tax

The sum of net company tax, non-resident withholding tax (NRWT) and foreign-source dividend withholding payments (FDWP).

Current account (Balance of Payments)

The current account records the value of New Zealand's transactions with the rest of the world in goods, services, income and transfers. The current account balance is the sum of all current account credits less all current account debits. When the sum of debits is greater than the sum of credits there is a current account deficit. The current account balance is commonly expressed as a percentage of nominal GDP.

Cyclically-adjusted balance (CAB) or structural balance

An estimate of the fiscal balance (operating balance before gains and losses) adjusted for fluctuations of actual GDP around trend GDP. CAB provides a picture of the underlying fiscal position and the effects of policy decisions.

Demographic changes

Changes to the structure of the population such as the age, gender or ethnic composition.

Domestic bond programme

The amount and timing of government bonds expected to be issued or redeemed.

Excise duties

Taxes levied on the domestic production of alcohol, tobacco and light petroleum products (CNG, LPG and petrol).

Financial assets

Any asset that is cash, an equity instrument of another entity (shares), a contractual right to receive cash or shares (taxes receivable and ACC levies) or a right to exchange a financial asset or liability on favourable terms (derivatives in gain).

Financial liabilities

Any liability that is a contractual obligation to pay cash (government stock, accounts payable) or a right to exchange a financial asset or liability on unfavourable terms (derivatives in loss).

Financial portfolio

Consists of the assets and liabilities held by the Crown to finance or pre-fund government expenditure.

Fiscal drag

The additional personal income tax generated as an individual's average tax rate increases as their income increases.

Fiscal impulse

A summary measure of how changes in the fiscal position affect aggregate demand in the economy. To isolate discretionary changes, the fiscal impulse is calculated on a cyclically-adjusted basis and excludes net interest payments. To better capture the role of capital spending, the indicator is derived from cash flow information.

Fiscal intentions (short-term)

Indications of the Government's intentions for operating expenses, operating revenues and the impact of its intentions on the operating balance, debt and net worth over (at least) the next three years. These intentions are required under the Public Finance Act 1989 (PFA).

Fiscal objectives (long-term)

The Government's long-term goals for operating expenses, operating revenue, the operating balance, debt and net worth, as required by the PFA. The objectives must be consistent with the defined principles of responsible fiscal management as outlined in the PFA and must cover a period of (at least) 10 years.

Forecast new capital spending (Capital allowance)

An amount provided in the forecasts to represent the balance sheet impact of capital initiatives expected to be introduced over the forecast period.

Forecast new operating spending (Operating allowance)

An amount included in the forecasts to provide for the operating balance (revenue and expenditure) impact of policy initiatives, changes to demographics and other forecasting changes expected to occur over the forecast period.

Gains and losses

Gains and losses typically arise from the revaluation of assets and liabilities, such as investments in financial assets and long-term liabilities for ACC and GSF. These valuation changes are reported directly as a movement in net worth (eg, asset revaluation reserves) or indirectly through the Statement of Financial Performance.

GDP deflator

An index of changes in the general price level in the economy. It is calculated as the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP.

Generally accepted accounting practice (GAAP)

GAAP refers to the rules and concepts used to prepare and present financial statements. GAAP is an independent set of rules and frameworks that govern the recognition, measurement and disclosure of financial elements, such as assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses.

Global Dairy Trade (GDT)

An auction platform for dairy commodities. GDT prices are commonly used as a benchmark for dairy prices.

Government Finance Statistics (GFS)

A statistical framework for government reporting developed by IMF to aid comparability of results between countries. This differs from the GAAP framework that is used for reporting by the Government in New Zealand.

Gross debt

GSID (refer below) excluding settlement cash and bank bills.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

A measure of the value-added of all goods and services produced in New Zealand. Changes in GDP measure growth or contraction in economic activity or output. GDP can be measured on an expenditure, income or production basis and in real and/or nominal terms. (See following definitions.)

Gross domestic product (expenditure)

The sum of total expenditure on final goods and services in the economy, including exports but minus imports. Expenditure GDP is calculated in both real and nominal terms.

Gross domestic product (income)

The sum of income received by the owners of the factors of production. These represent the returns to the labour and capital employed (eg, wages, salaries and profits). Income GDP is calculated only in nominal terms for March years.

Gross domestic product (nominal)

The value-added of goods and services produced in the economy expressed in current prices.

Gross domestic product (production)

The value-added of goods and services produced in New Zealand, after deducting the cost of goods and services used in the production process. Production GDP is calculated only in real terms.

Gross domestic product (real)

The value-added of goods and services produced in the economy expressed in the prices of a base period. The current base period is 2009/10.

Gross national expenditure (GNE)

A measure of total expenditure on final goods and services by New Zealand residents.

Gross sovereign-issued debt (GSID)

Represents debt issued by the sovereign (the core Crown) and includes government stock held by the NZS Fund, ACC and EQC.

Insurance liabilities

The gross obligation for the future cost of claims incurred prior to balance date represented in today's dollars (present value). The net liability is the gross liability less the asset reserves held to meet those claims.

Inter-segment eliminations

The amounts of transactions between different segments (core Crown, Crown entities and SOEs) that are eliminated to determine total Crown results.

Labour force participation rate

The percentage of the working-age population in work or actively looking for and available for work.

Labour productivity

Output per unit of labour input (where labour inputs might be measured as hours worked or the number of people employed).

Line-by-line consolidation

A term used to refer to the general approach to the presentation of the Financial Statements of the Government. It means that the individual line items for revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities in the Financial Statements of the Government include all departments, Offices of Parliament, the Reserve Bank, SOEs, Crown entities and other entities controlled by the Government.

Loan-to-value ratio (LVR)

A measure of how much a bank lends against residential property, compared to the value of that property. The Reserve Bank introduced LVR restrictions in October 2013 and changed them in November 2015. Investor loans in the Auckland Council area with a LVR of more than 70% can make up no more than 5% of a bank's total new lending within this category. Non-investor loans in the Auckland Council area with an LVR of more than 80% can make up no more than 10% of a bank's total lending in that category (the same as the original restrictions). All loans outside the Auckland Council area with a LVR of more than 80% can make up no more than 15% of a bank's total lending in that category.

Marketable securities

Assets held with financial institutions. These assets are held for both cash flow and investment purposes. Examples are bonds, commercial papers and debentures.

Minority interest

Minority interest refers to shareholders of Government reporting entities outside the Crown. Current examples include those who hold shares in the mixed ownership companies.

Monetary conditions

Aggregate monetary conditions measure the degree to which short-term interest rates and the exchange rate either support or restrict economic growth.

Monetary policy

The policies that the Reserve Bank uses to regulate the supply of money in New Zealand. The Reserve Bank implements its monetary policy decisions by adjusting its Official Cash Rate (OCR) in an effort to maintain stability in the rate of CPI inflation within a defined target range.

Tightening monetary policy means raising the OCR in order to moderate aggregate demand pressures and reduce inflationary pressures. Easing monetary policy has the reverse effect.

National saving

National disposable income less private and public consumption spending. Income excludes gains and losses on capital. Gross saving includes depreciation.

Net core Crown cash flow from operations

The cash impact of core Crown operating results. It is represented by the operating balance (before gains and losses) less retained items (eg, net surplus of SOEs, Crown entities and NZS Fund net revenue) less non-cash items (eg, depreciation).

Net core Crown debt

Net core Crown debt provides information about the sustainability of the Government's accounts, and is used by some international rating agencies when determining the creditworthiness of a country. It represents gross debt less core Crown financial assets (excluding advances and financial assets held by the NZS Fund). Advances and financial assets held by the NZS Fund are excluded as these assets are less liquid and/or they are made for public policy reasons rather than for the purposes associated with government financing.

Net international investment position (NIIP)

The net value of New Zealand's international assets and liabilities at a point in time.

Net worth

Total assets less total liabilities of all Government reporting entities. The change in net worth in any given forecast year is largely driven by the operating balance and property, plant and equipment revaluations.

Net worth attributable to the Crown

Represents the Crown's share of total assets and liabilities and excludes minority interests' share of those assets and liabilities.

Operating balance

Represents OBEGAL (refer below) plus gains and less losses. The operating balance includes gains and losses not reported directly as a movement against net worth. The impact of gains and losses on the operating balance can be subject to short-term market volatility and revaluations of long-term liabilities.

Operating balance before gains and losses (OBEGAL)

Represents total Crown revenue less total Crown expenses excluding minority interest share. OBEGAL can provide a more useful measure of underlying stewardship than the operating balance as short-term market fluctuations are not included in the calculation.

Output gap

The difference between actual and potential GDP. (See Potential output.)

Outputs

Outputs are the goods and services commissioned by Ministers from public, non-governmental and private sector producers. Outputs may include the supply of policy advice, enforcement of regulations (such as speed limits in transport), provision of a range of services (in health, education, etc), negotiation and management of contracts and administration of benefits.

Potential output

The level of output an economy can sustain without an acceleration of inflation.

Productivity

The amount of output (eg, GDP) per unit of input.

Projections

Projections relate to the period beyond the five-year forecast period and are based on long-run economic and fiscal assumptions. For example, the projections assume no economic cycle and constant long-run interest, inflation and unemployment rates.

Residual cash

The level of money the Government has available to repay debt or, alternatively, needs to borrow in any given year. Residual cash is alternatively termed “Cash available/(shortfall to be funded)”.

Residual cash is equal to net core Crown cash flow from operations excluding NZS Fund activity less core Crown capital payments (eg, purchase of assets, loans to others).

Settlement cash

This is the amount of money deposited with the Reserve Bank by registered banks. It is a liquidity mechanism used to settle wholesale obligations between registered banks and provides the basis for settling most of the retail banking transactions that occur every working day between businesses and individuals.

Social portfolio

Consists of the assets and liabilities held primarily to provide public services or to protect assets for future generations.

Specific fiscal risks

All government decisions or other circumstances known to the Government which may have a material impact on the fiscal and economic outlook, but are not certain enough in timing or amount to include in the fiscal forecasts.

System of National Accounts (SNA)

A set of macroeconomic accounts for government reporting, developed by the international community, to facilitate international comparisons of national economic statistics. This differs from the GAAP framework that is used for reporting by the Government in New Zealand.

Tax revenue

The accrual, rather than the cash (“tax receipts”) measure of taxation. It is a measure of tax due at a given point in time, regardless of whether or not it has actually been paid.

Terms of trade

The terms of trade measure the volume of imports that can be funded by a fixed volume of exports, and are calculated as the ratio of the total export price index to the total import price index. New Zealand's headline terms of trade series is derived from export and import price indices from Statistics New Zealand's quarterly Overseas Trade Indices. The Treasury forecasts the terms of trade on an SNA basis, using implicit export and import price indices derived from quarterly national accounts data.

Top-down adjustment

An adjustment to expenditure forecasts to reflect the extent to which departments use appropriations (upper spending limits) when preparing their forecasts. As appropriations apply to the core Crown only, no adjustment is required to SOE or Crown entity forecasts.

Total borrowings

Represents the Government's total debt obligations to external parties and can be split into sovereign-guaranteed debt and non-sovereign-guaranteed debt. Non-sovereign-guaranteed debt represents the debt obligations of SOEs and Crown entities that are not guaranteed by the Crown.

Total Crown

Includes the core Crown (defined above) plus Crown entities and SOEs as defined by the Government Reporting Entity on pages 93 to 95.

Tradables/non-tradables inflation

Tradables inflation includes CPI component series for goods and services that are imported or in competition with foreign goods, either in domestic or foreign markets. Movements in tradables inflationdemonstrate how international pricemovements and exchange rates affect consumer prices. Non-tradables inflation includes goods and services that do not face foreign competition. It shows how domestic demand and supply conditions affect consumer prices.

Tradable/non-tradable output

The tradable sector is that part of the economy particularly exposed to foreign competition either through exports or import substitution. It includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, and manufacturing industries. Non-tradable output includes the construction industry, rental, hiring and real estate services, public administration and safety, and health care and social assistance. Other industries may be classified as either tradable or non-tradable depending on whether their direct or indirect outputs are exposed to foreign competition.

Trade-weighted index (TWI)

A measure of movements in the NZ dollar against the currencies of our major trading partners. Since December 2014, the TWI has been based on 17 currencies, weighted according to each country's direct bilateral trade in goods and services with New Zealand. Together these countries account for more than 80% of New Zealand's foreign trade.

Trading partner growth (TPG)

Trading partner growth is the average of the annual economic growth rates of New Zealand's main trading partners, weighted by their shares of goods exports.

Votes

When Parliament considers legislation relating to appropriations, the appropriations are grouped within “Votes”. Generally, a Vote groups similar or related appropriations together (eg, Vote Health includes all health- related appropriations administered by the Ministry of Health).

Year ended

Graphs and tables within this document use different expressions of the timeframe. While some tables may refer to the end of the tax year (31 March), others will refer to the end of the Government's financial year (30 June). For example, unless otherwise stated references to 2014/15 or 2015 will mean the end of the financial year.

Time Series of Fiscal and Economic Indicators

Fiscal Indicators

June years 2006
Actual
2007
Actual
2008
Actual
2009
Actual
2010
Actual
2011
Actual
2012
Actual
2013
Actual
2014
Actual
2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast

$millions

                             

Revenue and expenses

                             
Core Crown tax revenue 50,973 53,477 56,747 54,681 50,744 51,557 55,081 58,651 61,563 66,636 69,682 71,971 75,678 80,269 84,401
Core Crown revenue 55,499 57,971 61,575 59,191 55,757 57,199 60,428 63,805 67,093 72,213 75,329 78,544 82,098 87,020 91,414
Core Crown expenses 49,084 53,764 56,753 63,711 63,554 70,099 68,939 69,962 71,174 72,363 74,382 77,388 79,719 82,047 84,818

Surpluses

                             
Total Crown OBEGAL 7,091 5,860 5,637 (3,893) (6,315) (18,396) (9,240) (4,414) (2,802) 414 668 719 2,455 4,972 6,681
Total Crown operating balance 9,542 8,023 2,384 (10,505) (4,509) (13,360) (14,897) 6,925 2,939 5,771 (2,565) 3,058 4,957 7,606 9,599

Cash position

                             
Core Crown residual cash 2,985 2,793 2,057 (8,639) (9,000) (13,343) (10,644) (5,742) (4,109) (1,827) (2,115) (4,162) (2,072) 1,959 3,900

Debt

                             
Gross debt1 33,903 30,647 31,390 43,356 53,591 72,420 79,635 77,984 81,956 86,125 86,783 93,880 89,305 84,355 83,568
Gross debt incl RB settlement cash and bank bills 35,867 36,805 37,745 50,973 58,891 77,290 84,168 84,286 88,468 93,156 94,064 101,161 96,586 91,636 90,849
Net core Crown debt (incl NZS Fund)2 6,302 1,620 (2,676) 5,633 12,549 23,969 33,475 34,428 34,174 30,862 33,373 35,497 35,412 31,182 24,889
Net core Crown debt2 16,163 13,196 10,258 17,119 26,738 40,128 50,671 55,835 59,931 60,631 62,272 66,334 68,308 66,278 62,349

Net worth

                             
Total Crown net worth 83,971 96,827 105,514 99,515 94,988 80,887 59,780 70,011 80,697 92,236 89,302 92,425 97,478 105,161 114,871
Total net worth attributable to the Crown 83,678 96,531 105,132 99,068 94,586 80,579 59,348 68,071 75,486 86,454 83,547 86,641 91,626 99,267 108,912
Nominal expenditure GDP (revised actuals) 164,614 175,367 189,098 189,483 196,701 205,833 215,372 218,827 234,969 241,580 250,126 259,208 273,618 287,449 299,190

% GDP

                             

Revenue and expenses

                             
Core Crown tax revenue 31.0 30.5 30.0 28.9 25.8 25.0 25.6 26.8 26.2 27.6 27.9 27.8 27.7 27.9 28.2
Core Crown revenue 33.7 33.1 32.6 31.2 28.3 27.8 28.1 29.2 28.6 29.9 30.1 30.3 30.0 30.3 30.6
Core Crown expenses 29.8 30.7 30.0 33.6 32.3 34.1 32.0 32.0 30.3 30.0 29.7 29.9 29.1 28.5 28.3
Surpluses                              
Total Crown OBEGAL 4.3 3.3 3.0 (2.1) (3.2) (8.9) (4.3) (2.0) (1.2) 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 1.7 2.2
Total Crown operating balance 5.8 4.6 1.3 (5.5) (2.3) (6.5) (6.9) 3.2 1.3 2.4 (1.0) 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.2

Cash position

                             
Core Crown residual cash 1.8 1.6 1.1 (4.6) (4.6) (6.5) (4.9) (2.6) (1.7) (0.8) (0.8) (1.6) (0.8) 0.7 1.3

Debt

                             
Gross debt1 20.6 17.5 16.6 22.9 27.2 35.2 37.0 35.6 34.9 35.7 34.7 36.2 32.6 29.3 27.9
Gross debt incl RB settlement cash and bank bills 21.8 21.0 20.0 26.9 29.9 37.5 39.1 38.5 37.7 38.6 37.6 39.0 35.3 31.9 30.4
Net core Crown debt (incl NZS Fund)2 3.8 0.9 (1.4) 3.0 6.4 11.6 15.5 15.7 14.5 12.8 13.3 13.7 12.9 10.8 8.3
Net core Crown debt2 9.8 7.6 5.4 9.0 13.6 19.5 23.5 25.5 25.5 25.1 24.9 25.6 25.0 23.1 20.8

Net worth

                             
Total Crown net worth 51.0 55.2 55.8 52.5 48.3 39.3 27.8 32.0 34.3 38.2 35.7 35.7 35.6 36.6 38.4
Total net worth attributable to the Crown 50.8 55.0 55.6 52.3 48.1 39.1 27.6 31.1 32.1 35.8 33.4 33.4 33.5 34.5 36.4
  1. Excludes Reserve Bank settlement cash and bank bills.
  2. Excludes advances.

Economic Indicators

June Years
Annual average % change
2006
 Actual
2007
 Actual
2008
 Actual
2009
 Actual
2010
 Actual
2011
 Actual
2012
 Actual
2013
 Actual
2014
 Actual
2015
 Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Private consumption 3.6 3.7 2.9 -1.0 2.3 2.0 3.6 2.4 2.8 2.7 3.0 3.3 2.6 2.5 2.3
Public consumption 6.4 3.8 4.9 2.9 -0.4 2.7 0.6 0.3 2.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.4 1.0 1.1
TOTAL CONSUMPTION 4.2 3.7 3.4 0.0 1.6 2.2 2.8 1.9 2.8 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.3 2.2 2.0
Residential investment                -4.8 2.5 -3.8 -21.9 -2.7 -2.6 9.8 13.2 14.9 8.5 5.4 6.5 7.4 5.5 -0.8
Non-market investment                 -1.1 1.3 -8.1 40.0 -7.8 10.5 -30.1 12.8 2.7 27.0 3.0 8.4 -1.9 -8.3 0.5
Market investment                     6.8 2.1 12.6 -13.1 -8.7 8.9 11.8 -0.2 8.3 5.2 2.2 6.1 6.1 7.7 5.0
TOTAL INVESTMENT 2.9 2.1 6.5 -12.0 -6.8 5.6 7.2 3.9 9.3 7.8 3.1 5.8 5.4 5.6 2.8
Stock change (contribution to growth) -0.5 -0.5 0.9 -1.4 0.9 -0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4
GROSS NATIONAL EXPENDITURE 3.1 2.7 4.9 -4.3 0.7 2.7 4.1 2.2 4.4 3.4 2.7 3.7 3.3 3.3 2.5
Exports 0.9 4.0 3.5 -2.9 4.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 0.1 5.7 3.7 0.4 4.5 2.7 2.3
Imports 1.6 1.7 11.6 -12.0 -1.0 11.4 4.4 2.6 9.0 6.6 0.5 3.8 4.6 4.3 2.4
EXPENDITURE ON GDP 2.9 3.4 2.5 -1.4 2.6 0.2 3.4 2.3 1.9 3.3 3.5 2.6 3.3 2.8 2.5
GDP (production measure) 3.1 3.2 2.0 -1.9 0.6 1.1 2.8 2.3 3.0 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.5
 - annual % change 2.2 3.5 0.1 -2.1 2.3 1.1 2.6 2.5 3.6 2.4 2.9 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.3
Real GDP per capita 1.9 2.1 1.1 -2.7 -0.6 0.1 2.2 1.7 1.9 1.5 0.5 0.9 1.9 1.9 1.6
Nominal GDP (expenditure basis) 5.0 6.5 7.8 0.2 3.8 4.6 4.6 1.6 7.4 2.8 3.5 3.6 5.6 5.1 4.1
GDP deflator 2.0 3.0 5.2 1.6 1.1 4.4 1.2 -0.7 5.4 -0.5 0.0 1.0 2.2 2.2 1.5
Output gap (% deviation, June year average) 1.2 1.9 2.2 -1.1 -1.4 -2.0 -1.5 -1.3 -0.8 -0.5 -0.9 -0.9 -0.3 0.0 0.0
Employment 2.8 1.6 1.3 -0.2 -1.3 1.5 0.9 0.2 3.2 3.2 1.4 2.2 1.9 2.0 1.5
Unemployment (% June quarter s.a.)          3.7 3.7 4.0 6.0 6.9 6.6 6.8 6.5 5.7 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.6
Wages (average ordinary-time hourly, ann % change)         4.5 4.4 5.4 4.7 1.1 3.0 2.9 2.2 2.6 2.8 1.7 1.4 1.9 2.3 2.9
CPI inflation (ann % change)      4.0 2.0 4.0 1.9 1.7 5.3 1.0 0.7 1.6 0.4 0.1 1.5 2.0 1.9 2.1
Merchandise terms of trade (SNA basis)        -1.8 0.2 10.0 -4.3 -3.0 9.7 -1.7 -3.8 16.4 -5.0 -4.7 0.4 3.7 2.3 -0.6
House prices (ann % change) 10.3 13.7 -4.4 -3.2 3.4 0.4 4.2 9.1 6.9 11.1 8.9 7.7 2.3 2.0 2.0
Current account balance - $billion           -12.6 -12.2 -13.4 -9.4 -3.5 -6.0 -7.7 -7.8 -5.8 -8.4 -8.7 -12.0 -11.2 -12.2 -14.4
Current account balance - % of GDP           -7.6 -6.9 -7.1 -4.9 -1.8 -2.9 -3.6 -3.6 -2.5 -3.5 -3.5 -4.6 -4.1 -4.3 -4.8
TWI (June quarter)                          66.7 75.7 73.0 62.3 68.6 70.8 72.4 76.3 81.5 76.2 72.5 70.5 70.2 70.3 69.5
90-day bank bill rate (June quarter)        7.5 8.1 8.8 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.4 3.5 2.2 2.2 2.6 3.7 4.2
10-year bond rate (June quarter)            5.8 6.3 6.4 5.6 5.7 5.3 3.7 3.5 4.4 3.6 3.1 3.2 3.9 4.2 4.4

Data for 2016 and subsequently are forecasts. Data for 2015 and prior years are those that were available when the forecasts were finalised.

Summary of Economic Forecasts (March Years)1

(Annual average % change, March years) 2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
Private consumption 2.6 2.7 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.4
Public consumption 2.3 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.0 1.1
Total consumption 2.6 2.6 3.1 2.5 2.2 2.1
Residential investment 11.6 4.9 6.7 7.1 6.6 0.5
Market investment 7.7 1.3 5.2 6.1 7.6 5.8
Non-market investment 16.0 12.2 4.7 3.0 -9.5 -0.8
Total investment 9.6 2.8 5.5 5.6 5.6 3.6
Stock change2 0.0 -0.2 -0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4
Gross national expenditure 4.0 2.5 3.6 3.4 3.3 2.8
Exports 4.2 5.5 -0.3 4.3 3.1 2.3
Imports 7.4 2.1 2.4 4.7 4.4 3.0
GDP (expenditure measure) 3.2 3.5 2.5 3.3 2.9 2.6
GDP (production measure) 3.6 2.4 2.8 3.3 2.9 2.6
Real GDP per capita 1.9 0.4 0.7 1.8 1.9 1.7
Nominal GDP (expenditure measure) 3.7 3.7 3.2 5.3 5.3 4.2
GDP deflator 0.5 0.2 0.6 1.9 2.4 1.6
Potential GDP 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5
Output gap (% deviation, March quarter)3 -0.6 -0.9 -0.9 -0.2 0.0 0.0
Employment 3.4 1.7 2.1 1.9 2.1 1.7
Unemployment rate4 5.8 5.5 5.7 5.2 4.7 4.5
Participation rate5 69.5 68.5 68.4 68.5 68.8 68.9
Nominal wages6 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.2 2.7
CPI inflation7 0.3 0.2 1.3 2.0 1.9 2.1
Terms of trade8 -0.8 -5.0 -1.4 3.3 3.2 -0.3
House prices9 9.0 9.9 9.3 3.3 2.0 2.0
Current account balance            
  $billions -8.3 -8.1 -11.7 -11.5 -11.7 -13.9
  % of GDP -3.5 -3.3 -4.6 -4.3 -4.1 -4.7
Household saving ratio (% of HHDI) -0.7 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.1
TWI10 77.9 72.2 71.0 70.1 70.4 69.8
90-day bank bill rate10 3.6 2.6 2.2 2.3 3.5 4.2
10-year bond rate10 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.7 4.2 4.4

Notes:

  1. Forecasts finalised 13 April 2016.
  2. Contribution to GDP growth.
  3. Estimated as the percentage difference between actual real GDP and potential real GDP.
  4. Percent of the labour force, March quarter, seasonally adjusted.
  5. Percent of the working-age population, March quarter, seasonally adjusted.
  6. Quarterly Employment Survey, average ordinary-time hourly earnings, annual percentage change.
  7. Annual percentage change.
  8. System of National Accounts (SNA) and merchandise basis, annual average percentage change.
  9. Quotable Value New Zealand (QVNZ) House Price Index, annual percentage change.
  10. Average for the March quarter.

Sources: Statistics New Zealand, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, CoreLogic, the Treasury

Additional Information

The following information forms part of the Budget Economic and Fiscal Update 2016 (Budget Update) released by the Treasury on 26 May 2016. This information provides further details on the Budget Update and should be read in conjunction with the published document. The additional information includes:

  • Detailed economic forecast information - tables providing breakdowns of the economic forecasts.
  • Treasury and Inland Revenue tax forecasts - detailed tax revenue and receipts tables comparing Treasury's forecasts with IR's forecasts.
  • Tax Policy changes - details of material changes to tax revenue since the Budget Update as a result of policy initiatives.
  • Additional fiscal indicators - estimates of the cyclically-adjusted balance and fiscal impulse.
  • Government Finance Statistics (GFS) for central government - fiscal tables presented under a GFS presentation framework to help with cross-country comparisons.
  • Accounting policies - outline of the specific Crown accounting policies.

Detailed Economic Forecast Information

This section includes tables with additional detail on the economic forecasts in the Budget Update.

The economic numbers and forecasts in this section were finalised on 13 April 2016.

From the Budget Economic and Fiscal Update 2016, Treasury is presenting economic forecasts in June years for consistency with the fiscal forecasts. Through the transition period, both March year and June year tables will be presented in the annual tables below (Tables 3 - 7).

Table 1 Real Gross Domestic Product

Table 2 Consumers Price Index and exchange rates

Table 3 Expenditure ongross domestic product and gross domestic product (income) in current prices

Table 4 Labour market indicators

Table 5 Exports - SNA basis

Table 6 Imports - SNA basis

Table 7 Balance of payments - Current account

Table 1 - Real Gross Domestic Product

Production based chain volume series expressed in 2009/10 prices

Seasonally adjusted

Table 1 - Real Gross Domestic Product
  $ million Quarterly
% change
Annual
% change
Annual average
% change
2013Q1 51,979 -0.1 1.9 2.3
2013Q2 52,402 0.8 2.5 2.3
2013Q3 52,839 0.8 3.0 2.6
2013Q4 53,084 0.5 2.0 2.4
2014Q1 53,803 1.4 3.5 2.8
2014Q2 54,284 0.9 3.6 3.0
2014Q3 54,788 0.9 3.7 3.2
2014Q4 55,261 0.9 4.1 3.7
2015Q1 55,407 0.3 3.0 3.6
2015Q2 55,581 0.3 2.4 3.3
2015Q3 56,062 0.9 2.3 2.9
2015Q4 56,540 0.9 2.3 2.5
2016Q1 56,879 0.6 2.7 2.4
2016Q2 57,221 0.6 2.9 2.6
2016Q3 57,609 0.7 2.8 2.7
2016Q4 58,083 0.8 2.7 2.8
2017Q1 58,561 0.8 3.0 2.8
2017Q2 59,088 0.9 3.3 2.9
2017Q3 59,588 0.8 3.4 3.1
2017Q4 60,025 0.7 3.3 3.3
2018Q1 60,436 0.7 3.2 3.3
2018Q2 60,850 0.7 3.0 3.2
2018Q3 61,287 0.7 2.9 3.1
2018Q4 61,717 0.7 2.8 3.0
2019Q1 62,130 0.7 2.8 2.9
2019Q2 62,537 0.7 2.8 2.8
2019Q3 62,910 0.6 2.6 2.8
2019Q4 63,272 0.6 2.5 2.7
2020Q1 63,648 0.6 2.4 2.6
2020Q2 64,005 0.6 2.3 2.5

Source: Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Table 2 - Consumers Price Index and Exchange Rates

Table 2 - Consumers Price Index and Exchange Rates
  Consumers Price Index Exchange rates
Index Quarterly
% change
Annual
% change
TWI USD
2013Q1 1174 0.4 0.9 75.9 0.83
2013Q2 1176 0.2 0.7 76.3 0.82
2013Q3 1187 0.9 1.4 76.0 0.80
2013Q4 1188 0.1 1.6 78.2 0.83
2014Q1 1192 0.3 1.5 80.0 0.84
2014Q2 1195 0.3 1.6 81.5 0.86
2014Q3 1199 0.3 1.0 80.1 0.84
2014Q4 1197 -0.2 0.8 77.5 0.78
2015Q1 1195 -0.2 0.3 77.9 0.75
2015Q2 1200 0.4 0.4 76.2 0.73
2015Q3 1204 0.3 0.4 69.8 0.65
2015Q4 1198 -0.5 0.1 72.1 0.67
2016Q1 1197 -0.1 0.2 72.2 0.66
2016Q2 1201 0.3 0.1 72.5 0.66
2016Q3 1205 0.3 0.1 72.0 0.65
2016Q4 1205 0.0 0.6 71.5 0.64
2017Q1 1212 0.6 1.3 71.0 0.63
2017Q2 1219 0.5 1.5 70.5 0.62
2017Q3 1228 0.8 1.9 69.8 0.61
2017Q4 1230 0.2 2.1 69.9 0.61
2018Q1 1237 0.5 2.0 70.1 0.62
2018Q2 1243 0.5 2.0 70.2 0.62
2018Q3 1252 0.7 2.0 70.3 0.62
2018Q4 1254 0.1 1.9 70.4 0.62
2019Q1 1260 0.5 1.9 70.4 0.62
2019Q2 1267 0.5 1.9 70.3 0.62
2019Q3 1277 0.8 2.0 70.2 0.62
2019Q4 1279 0.2 2.0 70.0 0.62
2020Q1 1287 0.6 2.1 69.8 0.62
2020Q2 1294 0.6 2.1 69.5 0.62

Source: RBNZ, Statistics New Zealand, the Treasury

Table 3 - Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Product (income) in current prices (June and March)

Table 3 - Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Product (income) in current prices (June and March)
Year ended June 2015
Actual
2016
Forecast
2017
Forecast
2018
Forecast
2019
Forecast
2020
Forecast
$million %volume %price $million %volume %price $million %volume %price $million %volume %price $million %volume %price $million
Consumption:                                
- Private 139,277 3.0 0.8 144,586 3.3 0.9 150,663 2.6 1.6 157,038 2.5 1.5 163,382 2.3 1.6 169,663
- Public 45,374 2.1 1.8 47,144 2.0 1.7 48,912 1.4 2.0 50,583 1.0 2.0 52,131 1.1 2.0 53,762
Gross Fixed Capital Formation:                                
- Residential 15,797 5.4 4.9 17,461 6.5 4.3 19,391 7.4 3.1 21,468 5.5 3.3 23,381 -0.8 3.7 24,028
- Market * 34,421 2.2 2.5 36,060 6.1 -1.7 37,582 6.1 0.2 39,973 7.7 0.4 43,201 5.0 0.5 45,568
- Non-market ** 4,543 3.0 2.0 4,772 8.4 2.3 5,292 -1.9 2.4 5,317 -8.3 2.4 4,994 0.5 2.4 5,143
- Total all sectors 54,947 3.1 3.1 58,419 5.8 0.7 62,265 5.4 1.7 66,758 5.6 1.6 71,576 2.8 1.5 74,739
Change in Stocks 643     -470     -11     726     1,591     2,636
Gross National Expenditure 240,301 2.7 1.2 249,544 3.7 1.2 261,830 3.3 1.7 275,105 3.3 1.6 288,680 2.5 1.6 300,800
Exports 67,629 3.7 -0.8 69,581 0.4 1.8 71,156 4.5 5.6 78,530 2.7 3.0 83,072 2.3 2.0 86,707
Imports 66,432 0.5 3.8 69,303 3.8 2.6 73,818 4.6 3.6 80,022 4.3 1.0 84,303 2.4 2.3 88,318
Expenditure on GDP 241,580 3.5 0.0 250,126 2.6 1.0 259,208 3.3 2.2 273,618 2.8 2.2 287,449 2.5 1.5 299,190
Statistical Discrepancy 1,691     1,693     1,694     1,696     1,699     1,701
Gross Domestic Product 243,271     251,819     260,902     275,315     289,148     300,891
Compensation of employees 105,924     110,148     114,073     117,989     122,917     128,009
Operating Surplus, net:                                 
- Agriculture 6,803     3,697     3,525     3,737     4,627     5,073
- Other 63,339     67,658     69,626     76,403     80,868     83,628
- Total all sectors 70,142     71,355     73,151     80,140     85,495     88,700
Consumption of fixed capital 33,885     35,580     37,359     39,227     41,188     43,247
Indirect Taxes 32,473     33,889     35,472     37,112     38,701     40,087
Less subsidies 847     847     847     847     847     847
Gross Domestic Product 243,271     251,819     260,902     275,315     289,148     300,891

* Includes Local Government and Non-profit Organisations
** Central Government (includes Crown Entities but not SOEs)

Note: GDP Income measure has been converted from March years to June years by Treasury

Source: Statistics New Zealand, t