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2014

Recent Unemployment Experience in New Zealand (WP 14/01)
Author: Jeff Borland. This paper discusses the recent history of the rate of unemployment in New Zealand. The rate of unemployment in New Zealand increased by about 3.5 percentage points between late 2007 and late 2009, and then has remained relatively steady to early 2013.
To Save or Save Not: Intergenerational Neutrality and the Expansion of New Zealand Superannuation (WP 14/02)
Author: Andrew Coleman. Increases in longevity mean the size of New Zealand's public retirement income programme, New Zealand Superannuation, will automatically expand unless the age of eligibility is increased. This paper analyses the consequences of expanding New Zealand Superannuation on a save-as-you-go basis through the New Zealand Superannuation Fund rather than on a pay-as-you-go basis.
New Zealand Labour Market Dynamics: Pre- and Post-global Financial Crisis (WP 14/03)
Author: Weshah Razzak. A persistent increase in the unemployment rate ignites speculations about whether the changes to unemployment are structural or cyclical. The New Zealand economy has been through major restructuring since the mid-1980s.
An Empirical Study of Sectoral-Level Capital Investments in New Zealand (WP 14/04)
Author: Weshah Razzak. I extend the Glick and Rogoff (1995) aggregate time-series, empirical, intertemporal model of country-investment (and the current account) to a sectoral-level, and estimate it for New Zealand. I fit the model to panel data of eleven industries from 1988-2009.
A Gravity Model of Barriers to Trade in New Zealand (WP 14/05)
Author: Murat Genc and David Law. There are many costs associated with international trade. These costs act as barriers to trade and affect the level of trade. This paper first provides a brief discussion of the stateof- the-art methods used to measure trade costs and to quantify their impact on trade.
KiwiSaver: Comparing Survey and Administrative Data (WP 14/06)
Author: Anton Samoilenko and David Law. This paper explores the KiwiSaver information contained in two sources: the administrative data from the Inland Revenue Department (IRD) and the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE).
Food Expenditure and GST in New Zealand (WP 14/07)
Authors: Christopher Ball, John Creedy and Michael Ryan. This paper has two main aims. First, the poor targeting of a policy of zero-rating food in a goods and services tax (GST) is illustrated in a simple model where the revenue lost from zero-rating food is instead devoted to a universal transfer payment, with a larger effect on progressivity. Second, the paper investigates the welfare effects on New Zealand households of zero-rating food.
Estimation of Labour Supply in New Zealand (WP 14/08)
Authors: Joseph Mercante and Penny Mok. In this paper we estimate labour supply using a discrete choice approach for single men, single women and single parents and a joint labour supply equation for couples in New Zealand.
Estimation of Wage Equations for New Zealand (WP 14/09)
Authors: Joseph Mercante and Penny Mok. This paper estimates wage equations for New Zealand based on pooled data from the Household Economic Survey (HES) from 2006/07 to 2010/11.
Migration and Macroeconomic Performance in New Zealand: Theory and Evidence (WP 14/10)
Author: Julie Fry. New Zealand immigration policy settings are based on the assumption that the macroeconomic impacts of immigration may be significantly positive, with at worst small negative effects. However, both large positive and large negative effects are possible.
Housing Affordability: Lessons from the United States (WP 14/11)
Author: Mark Skidmore. The purpose of this report is to compare and contrast New Zealand housing trends and policies with those of United States. The report summarizes lessons learned from the United States and highlights data needs and research questions that may require further consideration in order to better understand housing markets in New Zealand.
Examining the Elasticity of New Zealand's Current Account to the Real Exchange Rate
Authors: Kam Szeto and David Oxley. The main purpose of this paper is to supplement the existing literature by quantifying the elasticity of New Zealand's current account to changes in the real exchange rate.
The Role of Value Judgements in Measuring Inequality (WP 14/13)
Authors: John Creedy and Jesse Eedrah. When measuring inequality, value judgements are imposed, often implicitly, at several stages. In particular, the choice of 'welfare metric', adult equivalence scale, unit of analysis and the inequality measure itself cannot avoid value judgements. This paper illustrates the effects of using different distributions and summary measures, using New Zealand data for the period 2007 to 2011.
Pensions, Savings and Housing: A Life-cycle Framework with Policy Simulations (WP 14/14)
Authors: John Creedy, Norman Gemmell and Grant Scobie. The objective of the paper is to explore the saving and consumption responses of a representative household to a range of policy interventions such as changes in taxes and pension settings.
Income Mobility in New Zealand: A Descriptive Analysis (WP 14/15)
Authors: Kristie Carter, Penny Mok and Trinh Le. The purpose of this paper is to examine the absolute and relative income mobility in disposable income in New Zealand using the full longitudinal data from the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE) from 2002 to 2010.
Earnings and Employment in Foreign-owned Firms (WP 14/16)
Authors: David C. Mare, Lynda Sanderson and Richard Fabling. This paper examines remuneration and labour mobility patterns among workers in foreign-owned firms operating in New Zealand.
Options to Narrow New Zealand's Saving - Investment Imbalance (WP 14/17)
Author: Anne-Marie Brook. The Treasury has, at times, suggested giving greater consideration to reforms to narrow the Saving-Investment gap. However, there has been less discussion of specific policy options for doing this. This paper helps to fill the gap by asking what policy reforms could help to narrow the Saving-Investment gap in New Zealand.
Working for Families changes: The effect on labour supply in New Zealand (WP 14/18)
Author: Penny Mok and Joseph Mercante. This paper examines the labour supply responses to the Working for Families (WfF) package of welfare reforms, which was fully implemented in 2008.
Determinants of the New Zealand Yield Curve: Domestic vs. Foreign Influences (WP 14/19)
Authors: Enzo Cassino, Neil Cribbens and Tugrul Vehbi. This paper examines the relationship between the New Zealand government yield curve and the contribution of global and domestic factors influencing it.
Interpreting Inequality Measures and Changes in Inequality (WP 14/20)
Authors: John Creedy. This paper explores, in the context of the Atkinson inequality measure, attempts to make interpretations of orders of magnitude transparent.
The Effect of Public Pension Eligibility Age on Household Saving: Evidence from a New Zealand Natural Experiment (WP 14/21)
Authors: Talosaga Talosaga and Mark Vink. This paper examines the effect of the last increase in the eligibility age for New Zealand's public pension, New Zealand Superannuation, on household saving rates.
KiwiSaver and the Accumulation of Net Wealth (WP 14/22)
Authors: David Law and Grant Scobie. The objective of this paper is to analyse the extent to which membership of KiwiSaver has been associated with greater accumulations of net wealth.
Intergenerational Developments in Household Saving Behaviour (WP 14/23)
Author: Mark Vink. This paper examines the saving behaviour of different generations of households in New Zealand over the period 1984 to 2010 using data from the Household Economic Survey.