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2004

The Effects on New Zealand Households of an Increase in the Petrol Excise Tax (WP 04/01)
WP 04/01. Author: John Creedy. This paper reports estimates of the potential welfare effects of hypothetical increases in the petrol excise tax in New Zealand. Equivalent variations, for a range of household types and total expenditure levels, are obtained along with distributional measures.
Theories of the Family and Policy (WP 04/02)
WP 04/02. Authors: Veronica Jacobsen, Megan Claridge, Lindy Fursman, John Bryant and Benedikte Jensen. This paper identifies the implications of five theories of family and individual behaviour for the likely success of policy intervention.
Youth Minimum Wage Reform and the Labour Market (WP 04/03)
WP 04/03. Authors: Steven Stillman and Dean Hyslop. This paper analyses the effects of a large reform in the minimum wages affecting youth workers in New Zealand since 2001.
Healthy, wealthy and wise? A Review of the Wider Benefits of Education (WP 04/04)
WP 04/04. Author: Ken Judge. This paper reviews evidence that a greater education causes better outcomes in life, over and above the effects of having a higher-paying job.
Measuring Productivity using the Index Number Approach: An Introduction (WP 05/05)
WP 04/05. Author: Nathan McLellan. This paper provides an introduction to productivity measurement using index number techniques.
Theory vs Reality: Making Environmental Use Rights Work in New Zealand (WP 04/06)
WP 04/06. Author: Kevin Guerin. The potential advantages in flexibility and efficiency of environmental use rights over prescriptive regulatory approaches have been well surveyed, and are being advocated in New Zealand now as a tool for achieving sustainable development. So why have they not been more widely adopted here?
Labour Force Participation and GDP in New Zealand (WP 04/07)
WP 04/07. Author: John Bryant. In this paper we calculate the effect on GDP of hypothetical increases in employment from increased participation, taking into account the differences in productivity between new and existing workers.
The Impact of Workplace and Personal Superannuation Schemes on Net Worth:Evidence from the Household Savings Survey (WP 04/08)
WP 04/08. Authors: Trinh Le and Grant M Scobie. The central question addressed in this paper is: does having a workplace or personal superannuation scheme result in a higher level of accumulation for retirement?
Global Connectedness and Bilateral Economic Linkages - Which Countries? (WP 04/09)
WP 04/09. Authors: Wayne Stevens and Jim Rose. This paper reviews the benefits from deeper external bilateral economic engagements using the insights from the new literature on economic growth, which places great importance on trade, international integration, human capital, and local and cross-border knowledge spillovers from research and development and foreign direct investment.
Estimating a New Zealand NAIRU (WP 04/10)
WP 04/10. Authors: Melody Guy and Kam Leong Szeto. This paper estimates the non-increasing inflation rate of unemployment or NAIRU for New Zealand. A NAIRU that varies over time has important implications in considering inflationary pressures.
Firm Dynamics in New Zealand: A Comparative Analysis with OECD Countries (WP 04/11)
WP 04/11. Authors: Jason Timmins and Duncan Mills. This paper reports on new comparative analyses of New Zealand's firm dynamics and business demography that attempt to control for measurement differences, using data from Statistics New Zealand's Business Demographic Statistics database, the OECD firm-level project, and the OECD's analysis of the Eurostat database.
Saving for Retirement: New Evidence for New Zealand (WP 04/12)
WP 04/12. Authors: Trinh Le, John K Gibson and Grant M Scobie. This paper develops a model of retirement wealth accumulation based on the findings from the Household Savings Survey. The evidence we present, tentative though it is, does suggest that there may not be widespread under-saving for retirement.
New Zealand’s Diaspora and Overseas-born Population (WP 04/13)
WP 04/13. Authors: John Bryant and David Law. Based mainly on place-of-birth data from national censuses, this paper provides estimates of the size and structure of New Zealand's diaspora and overseas-born population, as well as comparisons with selected OECD countries such as Australia.
Population Ageing and Government Health Expenditures in New Zealand, 1951-2051 (WP 04/14)
WP 04/14. Authors: Mhairi McHugh, Martin Tobias, John Bryant, Jit Cheung and Audrey Teasdale. The paper uses a simulation model to assess the effects of population ageing on government health expenditures in New Zealand.
“Managing for Outcomes” in the New Zealand Public Management System (WP 04/15)
WP 04/15. Author: Anna-Luis Cook. This paper argues that if a results focus is to truly be introduced to the New Zealand public management system then all aspects of the wider system will need to be amended, in order to support a general cultural change.
Workplace Skills, Technology Adoption and Firm Productivity: A Review (WP 04/16)
WP 04/16. Author: Sid Durbin. This paper reviews literature on the types of skills utilised by firms, the mechanisms by which skills contribute to firm productivity, and how skills are acquired. It identifies potential policy implications relating to work based skills training.
Financial systems and economic growth: An evaluation framework for policy (WP 04/17)
WP 04/17. Authors: Veronica Jacobsen, Iris Claus and Brock Jera. The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework for discussing the link between financial systems and economic growth.
Trade and Migration to New Zealand (WP 04/18)
WP 04/18. Authors: Murat Genç, John Bryant and David Law. This paper examines the hypothesis that a greater stock of migrants in New Zealand from a particular country leads to more trade between that country and New Zealand.
Institutions, Firms and Economic Growth (WP 04/19)
WP 04/19. Author: Jane Frances. This paper reviews the literature on institutions and explores the ways in which institutions can influence economic growth, with a particular focus on how institutions affect the use that firms make of human capital to improve their productivity.
Household incomes in New Zealand The impact of the market, taxes and government spending, 1987/88-1997/98 (WP 04/20)
WP 04/20. Authors: Ron Crawford and Grant Johnston. How well have New Zealand households fared over a decade of extensive economic and social changes? This study compares household incomes in 1997/98 with household incomes in 1987/88, using the concept of "final income".
Adult Equivalence Scales, Inequality and Poverty in New Zealand (WP 04/21)
WP 04/21. Authors: John Creedy and Catherine Sleeman. This paper examines the sensitivity of inequality and poverty measures to the choice of adult equivalence scales and the type of income unit examined.
Women’s Retirement Incomes in New Zealand: A Household Bargaining Approach (WP 04/22)
WP 04/22. Authors: Trinh Le, John K Gibson and Grant M Scobie. It is argued that when women have greater relative bargaining power, households will accumulate higher levels of wealth. However, in this paper, exactly the opposite pattern is reported for New Zealand.
Carbon Taxation, Prices and Household Welfare in New Zealand (WP 04/23)
WP 04/23. Authors: John Creedy and Catherine Sleeman. This paper examines the effects on consumer prices of a range of carbon taxes in New Zealand, using information about inter-industry transactions and the use of fossil fuels by industries.
Adult literacy and economic growth (WP 04/24)
WP 04/24. Author: Ken Judge. This paper looks at whether an increase in the basic literacy skills of adults would have a positive effect on the New Zealand economy.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reductions in New Zealand: A Minimum Disruption Approach (WP 04/25)
WP 04/25. Authors: John Creedy and Catherine Sleeman. Reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can come from (among other things) changes to the structure of final demands, changes in the use of fossil fuels by industry, and changes to the structure of inter-industry transactions. This paper examines the nature of the least disruptive changes.