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Characteristics of Children at Greater Risk of Poor Outcomes as Adults

2.4  Information about children in the priority population

Having defined the priority population, the main objective of the current analysis was to extend the earlier work by incorporating additional information available in the IDI.

The choice of measures was informed the information available with the IDI and the outcomes framework developed for 0-5’s and their families/whānau by the cross-agency working group.[10] It includes the aspirational statement “together with their family, whānau andcommunity, every child in New Zealand is healthy, learning, nurtured, and building positive foundations for the future”. Figure 1 shows the five domains which sit underneath this.

Figure 1: Excerpt from the Social Sector Investment for Family/Whānau with Vulnerable Children Aged 0-5 Outcomes Framework
Figure 1: Excerpt from the Social Sector Investment for Family/Whanau with Vulnerable Children Aged 0-5 Outcomes Framework   .

Measures were derived from the identity, education, health, corrections, and welfare data available in the IDI. The measures selected were considered to be the best that could be developed in the time available, and to represent a broad, but not exhaustive, range of characteristics and outcomes that impact on the lives of young people. The selected measures included:

  • mother smoked around the time of the child’s birth (based on diagnosis codes present on the delivery event record, only available for women delivering in hospital)
  • mother was single at the child’s birth (derived based on child being included in Sole Parent Support paid to mother, or father not being identified in the birth registration, the registration indicates that the parents were not in a relationship at the time of the child’s birth)
  • low birth weight (sourced from the birth registration record)
  • parent or caregiver received income support (welfare benefits) around the time of the child’s birth (child was included in benefit within 45 days of its birth)
  • either parent had a previous or current gang affiliation (as recorded by the Correction department)
  • contact with Child, Youth and Family (ie, they were the subject of a report of concern or notification, they had a substantiated finding or they were placed in care)
  • family violence notification by Police to CYF
  • injury related hospital admission (excluding short stays to the Emergency Department)
  • ambulatory sensitive hospitalisation (ASH)
  • received disability support from the Ministries of Health and Education (received disability support services from MoH or enrolled in a special education school)
  • participated in ECE before starting school, collected by the Ministry of Education when the child enrolled at school, available only for children aged 5 at the end of 2013
  • parent assessed their child as having abnormal conduct or behavioural issues (Before School Check administered by Ministry of Health which includes a numbers of other measures)
  • referred to dental services (Before School Check which includes vision and dental referrals)
  • moved house at least once a year on average (based on Ministry of Health information on address history sourced from the NHI and PHO databases).

Appendix 2 Table 1 lists some additional measures that were derived for this study. Note that not all measures were available for children aged 0 to 14 due to data limitations, for example participation in the Ministry of Health's Before School Check (B4SC) and participation in early childhood education were only known for children aged 5 years.


  • [10]The outcomes framework considered those developed for Vulnerable Children and for Whānau Ora.
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