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1.2 Outcome measures

A set of measures were identified from data available in the IDI, and based on the Youth Outcomes Framework,[3] across the domains of:

  • Enjoying Economic Opportunity
  • Engaging and Achieving in Education
  • Maintaining Good Health
  • Enjoying Safety and Security.

Outcomes considered in the analysis were derived from educational, health, corrections and welfare outcomes data. The measures used were considered to be the best that could be developed in the time available and represent a broad, but not exhaustive, range of poor outcomes that negatively impact on the lives of young people. In many cases, improved measures are likely to be able to be developed as the data in the IDI continues to develop and expand. Measures were defined as follows:

  • Not achieving:
    • at least an NCEA level 2 qualification by age 23 (for those turning 15 or 16)
    • at least a level 4 qualification by age 23 (for those turning 17 to 21).
  • Use of mental health or addiction services between ages 20 and 22 inclusive (for those turning 15 to 20).
  • Receiving a custodial or community sentence between ages 25 and 34 inclusive.
  • Being on a benefit for five years or more between ages 25 and 34 inclusive.

The preferred approach was to analyse youth outcomes at ages 25 to 34 when possible. The 'mental health or addiction services' outcome measure was measured at ages 20 to 22 simply because the data needed to estimate it at ages 25 to 34 was not available. Over time, historical data will become more complete in the IDI, and such compromises will not be necessary.


  • [3]This framework includes five domain areas (the four listed above as well as Social Participation, for which an appropriate measure proved difficult to identify in the IDI). It was derived from the Global Youth Wellbeing Index, which set out six domains by which youth wellbeing could be defined - equivalents to the five used in the Youth Outcomes Framework as well as Information and Communication Technology. Information about the Global Youth Wellbeing Index can be accessed at
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