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The main taxes are the personal and corporate income taxes and Goods and Services Tax (GST), a value-added tax. Both are applied at reasonably low rates to broad bases. The introduction of GST in 1986 marked a significant shift in the mix of taxation from direct to indirect tax.

Personal income tax rate reductions in 2008, 2009 and 2010 reduced tax on individuals' capital and labour income. The 2010 changes were accompanied by reductions in the company, superannuation scheme and Portfolio Investment Entity (PIE a widely-held retail savings vehicle) rate to 28%. The changes were funded by increasing GST, better aligning tax and economic depreciation rates, and tightening the thin capitalisation rules faced by foreign investors.

Personal Income Tax

Withholding taxes apply to wages and salaries and to interest income and dividends. Fringe benefits are taxed separately.

Tax credits based on combined family income are available to families with children. A tax credit is also available to some independent earners who do not otherwise receive government support.

The tax treatment of pension funds and other savings is "TTE": contributions are made from Tax-paid income, fund earnings are Taxed, and withdrawals are Exempt.

Table 24 - Personal Income Tax

All income other than most capital gains is taxed. The following table sets out the personal tax rates that have applied since 1 October 2010.

Table 24 - Personal Income Tax
Individual Annual Income Tax rate from 1 October 2010
$0 - $14,000 10.5%
$14,001 - $48,000 17.5%
$48,001 - $70,000 30%
$70,001+ 33%

Indirect Taxes

GST was raised from 12.5% to 15% on 1 October 2010, in conjunction with the income tax cuts described above. Financial services and housing rentals are exempt but otherwise New Zealand's GST is very broad-based. Additional indirect taxes are applied to alcohol and tobacco products, petroleum fuels and gaming.

Company Taxes

As part of the 2010 tax reform package, the company tax rate was lowered from 30% to 28% with effect from 1 April 2011. Imputation credits are attached to dividends when tax is paid at the corporate level. Inter-corporate dividends (other than from wholly-owned subsidiaries) are taxed as income. Depreciation rates for new assets are based on the economic life of the asset. There is immediate deductibility against income of forestry and mineral mining development costs (although the Government is currently reviewing the taxation of mineral mining), petroleum exploration expenditure and of most agricultural development costs. The 2010 reforms also included reducing the depreciation rate for most buildings to 0% from 1 April 2011.

International Taxation

The foreign-source income of New Zealand residents is subject to tax, with some exceptions. In particular, foreign dividends received by resident companies are exempt.

In common with other OECD countries, New Zealand has rules attributing certain income earned through foreign entities to its residents and taxing it accordingly. Residents holding a 10% or greater interest in a controlled foreign company, other than an Australian company, are taxed on accrual on passive income earned by the company. For all income years beginning on or after 1 July 2009, any active income earned through such a company is exempt. These rules are similar to those operating in other OECD countries.

Residents holding a 10% or greater interest in a foreign company not controlled from New Zealand have been entitled to active income exemption from 1 July 2011.

Investments in the shares of foreign companies (except for some Australian listed companies) of less than 10% are taxed under the Fair Dividend Rate method. The investor is attributed income equal to 5% of the investment's opening value. Dividend income is exempt. Where an individual can show the unrealised gain on their investments is less than 5%, the investor is taxed on this lower amount. This last treatment is available only to investors who are natural persons and to some trusts. Investors that are companies or managed funds are taxed on a deemed return of 5% regardless of the actual return from the investment.

The tax treatment of the New Zealand income of non-residents encourages inward capital flows where this is feasible. Interest payments to non-residents are subject either to non-resident withholding tax (in most cases at a 10% rate where a double tax agreement applies and 15% otherwise) or to a 2% levy. In the case of New Zealand government debt, the issuer absorbs the levy and the return to the investor is not reduced by taxation. No tax or levy applies to interest paid to non-residents on certain publicly-listed debt.

Dividends paid to non-residents may also be subject to withholding taxes. Companies paying fully imputed dividends to non-resident investors with shareholdings of 10% or more do not have to apply any withholding tax. Companies paying fully imputed dividends to non-residents with shareholdings of less than 10% have to withhold tax at the rate of 15% but can claim a credit against their company tax, which they must then pass on to the investor. The net effect is that the maximum combined level of company tax and withholding tax on profits distributed to non-residents will in most cases be the same as the company tax rate (28%).

For unimputed dividends paid to non-residents, the rate of withholding tax is 30% unless this is reduced under a double tax agreement. Under most of New Zealand's double tax agreements, the withholding rate for dividends is limited to 15%. Recently, the Government has begun including lower limits in some of its double tax agreements for dividends paid in respect of shareholdings of 10%. For example, in the agreements with Australia and the United States, the rate of withholding tax on dividends is now limited to zero for shareholdings in excess of 80% and 5% for shareholdings of 10% or more. Lower limits are expected to be incorporated into other double tax agreements over time.

The Government has implemented transfer pricing and thin capitalisation regimes. It has recently abolished relief for New Zealand tax on offshore income derived by New Zealand companies on behalf of non-residents as these rules had led to tax avoidance.

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