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Pre-Election Economic and Fiscal Update 2008

2 Fiscal Outlook (continued)

Risks to Fiscal Forecasts

The fiscal forecasts were finalised on 17 September 2008 in accordance with forecast accounting policies. There are certain risks associated with the forecast results. To assist in evaluating such risks, the following chapters should be read in conjunction with the fiscal forecasts:

  • Risks and Scenarios (Chapter 3) - The fiscal forecasts are based on the economic forecasts presented in Chapter 1 and any variation from the economic forecast will affect the fiscal forecasts, in particular tax revenue and benefit expenses. The Risks and Scenarios chapter discusses the effect on the forecasts under different circumstances.
  • Specific Fiscal Risks (Chapter 4) - The fiscal forecasts incorporate government decisions up to 17 September 2008. The Specific Fiscal Risks chapter covers specific policy decisions that are under active consideration by the Government at the time of the finalisation of the forecasts.

In addition to the specific fiscal risks and the link to the economic forecasts, there are a number of forecasting issues explained below that may arise in future.

Tax forecasting risks

The tax forecasts prepared for this Pre-election Update are based on current tax policy and on the macroeconomic central forecast. Given the many tax policy changes that have been enacted recently (cut in company income tax rate, movements in personal income tax thresholds, introduction of PIE and FDR regimes for taxation of investments, etc), there is considerable uncertainty around exactly how these changes will pan out and their effect on the tax take. Sensitivities of tax revenue to changes in economic conditions are also presented in the Risks and Scenarios chapter on page 56.

KiwiSaver risks

Baselines reported by Inland Revenue incorporate an assumed take-up rate profile for the KiwiSaver regime. The actual take-up rate could be higher or lower than assumed, or faster or slower than assumed, representing an unquantified risk to the operating balance.

ETS risks

Baselines reported by the Ministry for the Environment on the ETS are based on a number of assumptions and projections, all of which can change through time. Notably they incorporate an assumed take-up rate profile for forestry participation in the scheme. The actual take-up rate could be higher or lower than assumed. These potential changes represent an unquantified risk to the operating balance.

Revaluation of property, plant and equipment

Crown accounting policy is to revalue certain classes of property, plant and equipment on a regular basis. In certain circumstances the valuation will be affected by foreign exchange rates, so any change in the NZ dollar (from 30 June 2008) may affect the current physical asset values included in the fiscal forecasts.

Discount rates

The Government Superannuation Fund and ACC liabilities included in these forecasts have been valued as at 30 June 2008. The liabilities are to be next valued for the 2009 Budget Update. Any change in discount rates will affect the present fiscal forecast. For example, if the discount rate rises, the value of the liabilities will decrease.

Other market rates

Forecasts use the exchange rates, interest rate curves and electricity pricing curves prevailing at the forecast reference date. Any subsequent change to these rates will affect the fiscal outcome.

Tertiary education institutes' accounting treatment

The forecast information presented in the 2008 Pre-election Update combined Tertiary Education Institutes (TEIs) on an equity accounting basis. This treatment has been under consideration by accounting standard setters. The Financial Reporting Standards Board (FRSB) has recently advised that the question of whether to consolidate autonomous and independent entities will be considered by delivering its deliberations of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) project on consolidation.

The combination method adopted in these forecasts is to equity account for the TEIs' net surpluses and net investment (ie, TEI revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities are not included on a line-by-line basis). This is consistent with the treatment adopted in the 2008 Financial Statements of the Government.


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