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Half Year Economic & Fiscal Update 2009

Glossary of Terms

ACC insurance liability

The ACC insurance liability is the gross liability of the future cost of past ACC claims. The net ACC liability is the gross liability less the asset reserves held to meet these claims.


The level of funding approved for any given spending area (eg, Education). All amounts within baselines are included in the forecasts.

Consumers Price Index (CPI)

A measure of change in the prices of goods and services bought by households.

Contingent liability

Contingent liabilities are costs, which the Crown will have to face if a particular uncertain and not probable event occurs. Typically, contingent liabilities consist of guarantees and indemnities, legal disputes and claims, and uncalled capital.

Contingent assets

Contingent assets are potential assets dependent on an uncertain event occurring.

Core Crown

The core Crown represents the revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities of the Crown, departments, Offices of Parliament, the Reserve Bank, and the NZS Fund.

Core Crown revenue

Core Crown revenue mostly consists of tax revenue collected by the Government, but also includes investment income, sales of goods and services and other revenue.

Core Crown expenses

The day-to-day spending (eg, salaries, welfare benefit payments, finance costs and maintaining national defence etc) that does not build physical assets for the Government. This is an accrual measure of expenses and includes items such as depreciation on physical assets.

Corporate tax

The sum of net company tax, non-resident withholding tax (NRWT), foreign-source dividend withholding payments (FDWP).

Current account (Balance of Payments)

A measure of the flows of income between New Zealand and the rest of the world. A net inflow to New Zealand is a current account surplus, while a net outflow is a deficit. The current account balance is commonly expressed as a percentage of GDP.

Cyclically adjusted or structural fiscal balance

An estimate of the fiscal balance (eg, operating balance (before gains and losses)) adjusted for short-term fluctuations of actual GDP around trend GDP. The estimate provides a picture of the underlying trend fiscal position and an indication of the effects of policy decisions. Because it is based on a number of assumptions and is sensitive to new information, the estimate is subject to some uncertainty.

Demographic changes

Changes to the structure of the population. For example the age, sex or ethnic make-up of the population.

Domestic bond programme

The amount and timing of new government stock expected to be issued over the financial year.

Excise duties

Tax levied on the domestic production of alcohol, tobacco and light petroleum products (CNG, LPG and petrol).

Financial assets

Cash or shares (equity), a right to receive cash or shares (equity), or a right to exchange a financial asset or liability on favourable terms.

Fiscal impulse

A summary measure of how changes in fiscal policy affect aggregate demand. To isolate discretionary changes, fiscal impulse is calculated on a cyclically-adjusted basis and excluding net interest payments. To better capture the role of capital spending the indicator is derived from cash flow information.

Fiscal intentions (short-term)

Under the Public Finance Act 1989, the Government must indicate explicitly its intentions for operating expenses, operating revenues, the operating balance, debt and net worth over (at least) the next three years.

Fiscal objectives (long-term)

The Government's long-term goals for operating expenses, operating revenue, the operating balance, debt and net worth, as required by the Public Finance Act 1989. The objectives must be consistent with the principles of responsible fiscal management outlined in the Act and cover a period of ten or more years.

Forecast new capital spending

An amount provided in the forecasts to represent the balance sheet impact of capital initiatives expected to be introduced over the forecast period.

Forecast new operating spending

An amount included in the forecasts to provide for the operating balance impact of policy initiatives and changes to demographics and other forecasting changes expected to occur over the forecast period.

Gains and Losses

Gains and losses typically arise from the revaluation of assets and liabilities, such as investments in financial assets and long-term liabilities for ACC and GSF. Gains and losses are reported directly as a movement in net worth (eg, asset revaluation reserves) or indirectly through the Statement of Financial Performance. The impact of gains and losses on the operating balance can be volatile so the operating balance (before gains and losses) indicator can provide a more useful measure of underlying stewardship.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

A measure of the value of all goods and services produced in New Zealand; changes in GDP measure growth in economic activity or output. GDP can be measured as the actual dollar value of goods and services measured at today's prices (nominal GDP), or excluding the effects of price changes over time (real GDP).

Gross domestic product (expenditure)

This is the sum of total final expenditures on goods and services in the economy.

Gross national expenditure (GNE)

Measures total expenditure on goods and services by New Zealand residents.

Gross sovereign-issued debt (GSID)

Debt issued by the sovereign (the core Crown) including Government stock held by the NZS Fund, ACC and EQC.

Labour force participation rate

Measures the percentage of the working-age population in work or actively looking for and available for work.

Labour productivity

Measures output per input of labour (where labour inputs might be measured as hours worked or people).

Line-by-line consolidation

This is a term used to refer to the general approach to the presentation of the Crown financial statements. It means that the individual line items for revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities in the Crown financial statements include all departments, Offices of Parliament, the Reserve Bank, SOEs, Crown entities, and other entities controlled by the Government.

Marketable securities

Assets held with financial institutions. These assets are held for both cash flow and investment purposes, and include any funds the Government has invested in the International Monetary Fund.

Monetary conditions

The combination of interest rates and the exchange rate.

Monetary policy

Action taken by the Reserve Bank to affect interest rates and the exchange rate in order to control inflation. Tightening monetary policy refers to actions taken by the Reserve Bank to raise interest rates (which can influence the exchange rate) in order to moderate aggregate demand pressures and so reduce inflationary pressures.

Net core Crown cash flow from operations

Operating balance (before gains and losses) less retained items (eg, net surplus of SOEs, CEs and NZS Fund net revenue) less non-cash items (eg, depreciation).

Net core Crown debt

Represents GSID less core Crown financial assets (excluding advances and financial assets held by the NZS Fund). Advances and financial assets held by the NZS Fund are excluded as these assets are less liquid and they are made for public policy reasons rather than for the purposes associated with government financing. Net core Crown debt provides information about the sustainability of the Government's accounts, and is used by some international agencies when determining the creditworthiness of a country

Net core Crown debt (incl NZS Fund)

Represents net core Crown debt plus the financial assets of the New Zealand Superannuation Fund.

Net worth

Total assets less total liabilities (also referred to as the Crown balance). The change in net worth in any given forecast year is largely driven by the operating balance.

Net worth excluding social assets

Net worth excluding social assets provides the government with an idea of how its assets that earn a financial return match its liabilities. The measure consists of the financial assets of the core Crown and Crown Entities, all the assets of State-Owned Enterprises (excluding KiwiRail), and total liabilities.


New Zealand equivalents to InternationalFinancial Reporting Standards. These standards are approved by the Accounting Standards Review Board in New Zealand and are based on the requirements of the international financial reporting standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board adjusted where appropriate for entities that are not profit oriented.

Operating allowance

The amount included in the Fiscal Strategy Report projections for new initiatives, including spending and cost pressures. The allowance is a projection assumption. The projections in the Fiscal Strategy Report also include an allowance for capital spending.

Operating balance

The operating balance is the residual of revenues less expenses plus surpluses from state-owned enterprises and Crown entities. It includes gains and losses not reported directly as a movement against net worth.

Operating balance before gains and losses

The operating balance (before gains and losses) is the operating balance excluding gains and losses. The impact of gains and losses on the operating balance can be volatile so the operating balance (before gains and losses) indicator (because it excludes gains and losses) can provide a more useful measure of underlying stewardship.


Projections of the key fiscal indicators beyond the five-year forecast period. The projections are based on long-run economic and fiscal assumptions. For example, the projections assume no economic cycle and constant long-run interest, inflation and unemployment rates.

Residual cash

The level of money the Government has available to repay debt or, alternatively, needs to borrow in any given year. Residual cash is alternatively termed “Cash available/(shortfall to be funded)”.

Residual cash is equal to net core Crown cash flow from operations excluding NZS Fund activity less core Crown capital commitments (eg, contributions to NZS Fund, purchase of assets, loans to others).

Settlement cash

This is the amount of money deposited with the Reserve Bank by banks. It is a liquidity mechanism used to settle wholesale obligations between banks and provides the basis for settling most of the retail banking transactions that occur every working day between corporate and individuals.

Specific fiscal risks

These are a category of Government decisions or circumstances which may have a material impact on the fiscal position (excluding contingent liabilities). They are not included in the main forecasts because their fiscal impact cannot be reasonably quantified, the likelihood of realisation is uncertain and/or the timing is uncertain.

System of National Accounts (SNA)

SNA is a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts to meet the needs of government and private sector analysts, policy-makers, and decision-takers.

Tax revenue

The accrual, rather than the cash (“tax receipts”) measure of taxation. It is a measure of tax due, regardless of whether or not it has actually been paid.

Top-down adjustment

The adjustment to expenditure forecasts to reflect the extent to which departments use appropriations (upper spending limits) for their expenditure forecasts. As appropriations apply to the core Crown only, no adjustment is required to SOE or Crown Entity forecasts.

Total borrowings

Total borrowings represents the Government's debt obligations to external parties. Total borrowings can be split into sovereign-guaranteed debt and non-sovereign-guaranteed debt. Non-sovereign-guaranteed debt represents the debt obligations of SOEs and Crown entities that are not explicitly guaranteed by the Crown.

Trade weighted index (TWI)

A measure of movements in the New Zealand dollar against the currencies of our major trading partners. The currencies comprise the US dollar, the Australian dollar, the Japanese yen, the euro and the UK pound.

Unit labour costs

The wages and other costs associated with employment per unit of output.

Year ended

Graphs and tables use different expressions of the timeframe. For example, 2008/09 or 2009 will generally mean “year ended 30 June” unless otherwise stated.

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